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如何:引发和使用事件

 

本主题中的示例演示了如何处理事件。 他们包含EventHandler委托的例子,EventHandler<TEventArgs>委托和一个特定委托用来说明包含和不包含数据的事件。

处理和引发事件文章中的示例使用了可以被理解的描述。

示例

第一个示例演示如何引发和销毁一个没有数据的事件。 它包含一个名为Counterthat has an event namedThresholdReached的类。 当计数器值等于或者超过阈值时,将引发此事件。 The EventHandler委托和事件联系,因为没有事件的数据被提供。

using System;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Counter c = new Counter(new Random().Next(10));
            c.ThresholdReached += c_ThresholdReached;

            Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
            while (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a')
            {
                Console.WriteLine("adding one");
                c.Add(1);
            }
        }

        static void c_ThresholdReached(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The threshold was reached.");
            Environment.Exit(0); 
        }
    }

    class Counter
    {
        private int threshold;
        private int total;

        public Counter(int passedThreshold)
        {
            threshold = passedThreshold;
        }

        public void Add(int x)
        {
            total += x;
            if (total >= threshold)
            {
                OnThresholdReached(EventArgs.Empty);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnThresholdReached(EventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler handler = ThresholdReached;
            if (handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        public event EventHandler ThresholdReached;
    }
}

示例

下一个示例演示如何引发和销毁提供数据的事件。 EventHandler<TEventArgs>委托和事件关联着,并提供一个特定的数据对象的实例。

using System;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Counter c = new Counter(new Random().Next(10));
            c.ThresholdReached += c_ThresholdReached;

            Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
            while (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a')
            {
                Console.WriteLine("adding one");
                c.Add(1);
            }
        }

        static void c_ThresholdReached(object sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.", e.Threshold,  e.TimeReached);
            Environment.Exit(0);
        }
    }

    class Counter
    {
        private int threshold;
        private int total;

        public Counter(int passedThreshold)
        {
            threshold = passedThreshold;
        }

        public void Add(int x)
        {
            total += x;
            if (total >= threshold)
            {
                ThresholdReachedEventArgs args = new ThresholdReachedEventArgs();
                args.Threshold = threshold;
                args.TimeReached = DateTime.Now;
                OnThresholdReached(args);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnThresholdReached(ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler<ThresholdReachedEventArgs> handler = ThresholdReached;
            if (handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        public event EventHandler<ThresholdReachedEventArgs> ThresholdReached;
    }

    public class ThresholdReachedEventArgs : EventArgs
    {
        public int Threshold { get; set; }
        public DateTime TimeReached { get; set; }
    }
}

示例

下一个示例演示如何声明事件的委托。 委托命名为ThresholdReachedEventHandler 这只是一个示例。 典型的,你不必为一个事件申明委托,因为你可以使用EventHandler或者EventHandler<TEventArgs>委托。 您极少情况下应声明一个委托,例如,让你的类用于遗留代码不能使用泛型

using System;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Counter c = new Counter(new Random().Next(10));
            c.ThresholdReached += c_ThresholdReached;

            Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
            while (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a')
            {
                Console.WriteLine("adding one");
                c.Add(1);
            }
        }

        static void c_ThresholdReached(Object sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.", e.Threshold, e.TimeReached);
            Environment.Exit(0);
        }
    }

    class Counter
    {
        private int threshold;
        private int total;

        public Counter(int passedThreshold)
        {
            threshold = passedThreshold;
        }

        public void Add(int x)
        {
            total += x;
            if (total >= threshold)
            {
                ThresholdReachedEventArgs args = new ThresholdReachedEventArgs();
                args.Threshold = threshold;
                args.TimeReached = DateTime.Now;
                OnThresholdReached(args);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnThresholdReached(ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            ThresholdReachedEventHandler handler = ThresholdReached;
            if (handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        public event ThresholdReachedEventHandler ThresholdReached;
    }

    public class ThresholdReachedEventArgs : EventArgs
    {
        public int Threshold { get; set; }
        public DateTime TimeReached { get; set; }
    }

    public delegate void ThresholdReachedEventHandler(Object sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs e);
}
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