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Test-Path

JuanPablo Jofre|Last Updated: 11/17/2016
|
2 Contributors

SYNOPSIS

Determines whether all elements of a path exist.

SYNTAX

Path (Default)

Test-Path [-Path] <String[]> [-Filter <String>] [-Include <String[]>] [-Exclude <String[]>]
 [-PathType <TestPathType>] [-IsValid] [-Credential <PSCredential>] [-UseTransaction] [-OlderThan <DateTime>]
 [-NewerThan <DateTime>] [<CommonParameters>]

LiteralPath

Test-Path -LiteralPath <String[]> [-Filter <String>] [-Include <String[]>] [-Exclude <String[]>]
 [-PathType <TestPathType>] [-IsValid] [-Credential <PSCredential>] [-UseTransaction] [-OlderThan <DateTime>]
 [-NewerThan <DateTime>] [<CommonParameters>]

DESCRIPTION

The Test-Path cmdlet determines whether all elements of the path exist. It returns $True if all elements exist and $False if any are missing. It can also tell whether the path syntax is valid and whether the path leads to a container or a terminal or leaf element.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Test a path

PS C:\>Test-Path -Path "C:\Documents and Settings\DavidC"

This command checks whether all elements in the path exist, that is, the C: directory, the Documents and Settings directory, and the DavidC directory. If any are missing, the cmdlet returns $False. Otherwise, it returns $True.

Example 2: Test the path of a profile

PS C:\>Test-Path -Path $profile
PS C:\> Test-Path -Path $profile -IsValid

These commands test the path of the Windows PowerShell profile.

The first command determines whether all elements in the path exist. The second command determines whether the syntax of the path is correct. In this case, the path is $False, but the syntax is correct ($True). These commands use $profile, the automatic variable that points to the location for the profile, even if the profile does not exist.

For more information about automatic variables, see about_Automatic_Variables.

Example 3: Check whether there are any files besides a specified type

PS C:\>Test-Path -Path "C:\CAD\Commercial Buildings\*" -Exclude *.dwg

This command checks whether there are any files in the Commercial Buildings directory other than .dwg files.

The command uses the Path parameter to specify the path. Because the path includes a space, the path is enclosed in quotation marks. The asterisk at the end of the path indicates the contents of the Commercial Building directory. With long paths, such as this one, type the first few letters of the path, and then use the TAB key to complete the path.

The command specifies the Exclude parameter to specify files that will be omitted from the evaluation.

In this case, because the directory contains only .dwg files, the result is $False.

Example 4: Check for a file

PS C:\>Test-Path -Path $profile -PathType leaf

This command checks whether the path stored in the $profile variable leads to a file. In this case, because the Windows PowerShell profile is a .ps1 file, the cmdlet returns $True.

Example 5: Check paths in the Registry

PS C:\>Test-Path -Path "HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\ShellIds\Microsoft.PowerShell"
True
PS C:\> Test-Path -Path "HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\ShellIds\Microsoft.PowerShell\ExecutionPolicy"
False

These commands use Test-Path with the Windows PowerShell registry provider.

The first command tests whether the registry path of the Microsoft.PowerShell registry key is correct on the system. If Windows PowerShell is installed correctly, the cmdlet returns $True.

Test-Path does not work correctly with all Windows PowerShell providers. For example, you can use Test-Path to test the path of a registry key, but if you use it to test the path of a registry entry, it always returns $False, even if the registry entry is present.

PARAMETERS

-Credential

Specifies a user account that has permission to perform this action. The default is the current user.

Type a user name, such as User01 or Domain01\User01. Or, enter a PSCredential object, such as one generated by the Get-Credential cmdlet. If you type a user name, this cmdlet prompts you for a password.

This parameter is not supported by any providers installed with Windows PowerShell.

Type: PSCredential
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: True (ByPropertyName)
Accept wildcard characters: False

-Exclude

Specifies items that this cmdlet omits. The value of this parameter qualifies the Path parameter. Enter a path element or pattern, such as "*.txt". Wildcard characters are permitted.

Type: String[]
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-Filter

Specifies a filter in the format or language of the provider. The value of this parameter qualifies the Path parameter. The syntax of the filter, including the use of wildcard characters, depends on the provider. Filters are more efficient than other parameters, because the provider applies them when it retrieves the objects instead of having Windows PowerShell filter the objects after they are retrieved.

Type: String
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-Include

Specifies paths that this cmdlet tests. The value of this parameter qualifies the Path parameter. Enter a path element or pattern, such as "*.txt". Wildcard characters are permitted.

Type: String[]
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-IsValid

Indicates that this cmdlet tests the syntax of the path, regardless of whether the elements of the path exist. This cmdlet returns $True if the path syntax is valid and $False if it is not.

Type: SwitchParameter
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-LiteralPath

Specifies a path to be tested. Unlike Path, the value of the LiteralPath parameter is used exactly as it is typed. No characters are interpreted as wildcard characters. If the path includes escape characters, enclose it in single quotation marks. Single quotation marks tell Windows PowerShell not to interpret any characters as escape sequences.

Type: String[]
Parameter Sets: LiteralPath
Aliases: PSPath

Required: True
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: True (ByPropertyName)
Accept wildcard characters: False

-NewerThan

Specify a time as a DateTime object.

Type: DateTime
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-OlderThan

Specify a time as a DateTime object.

Type: DateTime
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: 

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-Path

Specifies a path to be tested. Wildcard characters are permitted. If the path includes spaces, enclose it in quotation marks.

Type: String[]
Parameter Sets: Path
Aliases: 

Required: True
Position: 0
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: True (ByPropertyName, ByValue)
Accept wildcard characters: False

-PathType

Specifies the type of the final element in the path. This cmdlet returns $True if the element is of the specified type and $False if it is not. The acceptable values for this parameter are:

  • Container. An element that contains other elements, such as a directory or registry key.
  • Leaf. An element that does not contain other elements, such as a file.
  • Any. Either a container or a leaf. Tells whether the final element in the path is of a particular type.
Type: TestPathType
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: Type
Accepted values: Any, Container, Leaf

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: None
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

-UseTransaction

Includes the command in the active transaction. This parameter is valid only when a transaction is in progress. For more information, see Includes the command in the active transaction. This parameter is valid only when a transaction is in progress. For more information, see

Type: SwitchParameter
Parameter Sets: (All)
Aliases: usetx

Required: False
Position: Named
Default value: False
Accept pipeline input: False
Accept wildcard characters: False

CommonParameters

This cmdlet supports the common parameters: -Debug, -ErrorAction, -ErrorVariable, -InformationAction, -InformationVariable, -OutVariable, -OutBuffer, -PipelineVariable, -Verbose, -WarningAction, and -WarningVariable. For more information, see about_CommonParameters (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=113216).

INPUTS

System.String

You can pipe a string that contains a path, but not a literal path, to this cmdlet.

OUTPUTS

System.Boolean

The cmdlet returns a Boolean value.

NOTES

  • The cmdlets that contain the Path noun (the Path cmdlets) work with path names and return the names in a concise format that all Windows PowerShell providers can interpret. They are designed for use in programs and scripts where you want to display all or part of a path name in a particular format. Use them as you would use Dirname, Normpath, Realpath, Join, or other path manipulators.

    You can use the Path cmdlets with several providers, including the FileSystem, Registry, and Certificate providers.

    Test-Path is designed to work with the data exposed by any provider. To list the providers available in your session, type Get-PSProvider. For more information, see about_Providers.

*

Convert-Path

Join-Path

Resolve-Path

Split-Path

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