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About Split

JuanPablo Jofre|Last Updated: 11/17/2016
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2 Contributors

about_Split

SHORT DESCRIPTION

Explains how to use the Split operator to split one or more strings into substrings.

LONG DESCRIPTION

The Split operator splits one or more strings into substrings. You can change the following elements of the Split operation:

-- Delimiter. The default is whitespace, but you can specify characters, strings, patterns, or script blocks that specify the delimiter. The Split operator in Windows PowerShell uses a regular expression in the delimiter, rather than a simple character.

-- Maximum number of substrings. The default is to return all substrings. If you specify a number less than the number of substrings, the remaining substrings are concatenated in the last substring.

-- Options that specify the conditions under which the delimiter is matched, such as SimpleMatch and Multiline.

SYNTAX

The following diagram shows the syntax for the -split operator.

The parameter names do not appear in the command. Include only the parameter values. The values must appear in the order specified in the syntax diagram.

-Split

-Split [,[,""]]

-Split {} [,]

You can substitute -iSplit or -cSplit for -split in any binary Split statement (a Split statement that includes a delimiter or script block). The -iSplit and -split operators are case-insensitive. The -cSplit operator is case-sensitive, meaning that case is considered when the delimiter rules are applied.

PARAMETERS

Specifies one or more strings to be split. If you submit multiple strings, all the strings are split using the same delimiter rules. Example:

-split "red yellow blue green" red yellow blue green

The characters that identify the end of a substring. The default delimiter is whitespace, including spaces and non-printable characters, such as newline (n) and tab (t). When the strings are split, the delimiter is omitted from all the substrings. Example:

"Lastname:FirstName:Address" -split ":" Lastname FirstName Address

By default, the delimiter is omitted from the results. To preserve all or part of the delimiter, enclose in parentheses the part that you want to preserve. If the parameter is added, this takes precedence when your command splits up the collection. If you opt to include a delimiter as part of the output, the command returns the delimiter as part of the output; however, splitting the string to return the delimiter as part of output does not count as a split. .Examples:

"Lastname:FirstName:Address" -split "(:)" Lastname

:

FirstName

:

Address

"Lastname/:/FirstName/:/Address" -split "/(:)/" Lastname

:

FirstName

:

Address

In the following example, is set to 3. This results in three splits of the string values, but a total of five strings in the resulting output; the delimiter is included after the splits, until the maximum of three substrings is reached. Additional delimiters in the final substring become part of the substring.

'Chocolate-Vanilla-Strawberry-Blueberry' -split '(-)', 3;

Chocolate

-

Vanilla

-

Strawberry-Blueberry

Specifies the maximum number of times that a string is split. The default is all the substrings split by the delimiter. If there are more substrings, they are concatenated to the final substring. If there are fewer substrings, all the substrings are returned. A value of 0 and negative values return all the substrings.

Max-substrings does not specify the maximum number of objects that are returned; its value equals the maximum number of times that a string is split. If you submit more than one string (an array of strings) to the Split operator , the Max-substrings limit is applied to each string separately. Example:

$c = "Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" $c -split ",", 5 Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune

An expression that specifies rules for applying the delimiter. The expression must evaluate to $true or $false. Enclose the script block in braces. Example:

$c = "Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" $c -split {$-eq "e" -or $-eq "p"}

M

rcury,V nus,Earth,Mars,Ju it r,Saturn,Uranus,N

tun

Enclose the option name in quotation marks. Options are valid only when the parameter is used in the statement.

The syntax for the Options parameter is:

"SimpleMatch [,IgnoreCase]"

"[RegexMatch] [,IgnoreCase] [,CultureInvariant] [,IgnorePatternWhitespace] [,ExplicitCapture] [,Singleline | ,Multiline]"

The SimpleMatch options are:

-- SimpleMatch: Use simple string comparison when evaluating the delimiter. Cannot be used with RegexMatch.

-- IgnoreCase: Forces case-insensitive matching, even if the -cSplit operator is specified.

The RegexMatch options are:

-- RegexMatch: Use regular expression matching to evaluate the delimiter. This is the default behavior. Cannot be used with SimpleMatch.

-- IgnoreCase: Forces case-insensitive matching, even if the -cSplit operator is specified.

-- CultureInvariant: Ignores cultural differences in language when evaluting the delimiter. Valid only with RegexMatch.

-- IgnorePatternWhitespace: Ignores unescaped whitespace and comments marked with the number sign (#). Valid only with RegexMatch.

-- Multiline: Multiline mode recognizes the start and end of lines and strings. Valid only with RegexMatch. Singleline is the default.

-- Singleline: Singleline mode recognizes only the start and end of strings. Valid only with RegexMatch. Singleline is the default.

-- ExplicitCapture: Ignores non-named match groups so that only explicit capture groups are returned in the result list. Valid only with RegexMatch.

UNARY and BINARY SPLIT OPERATORS

The unary split operator (-split ) has higher precedence than a comma. As a result, if you submit a comma-separated list of strings to the unary split operator, only the first string (before the first comma) is split.

To split more than one string, use the binary split operator ( -split ). Enclose all the strings in parentheses, or store the strings in a variable, and then submit the variable to the split operator.

Consider the following example:

-split "1 2", "a b"

1

2

a b

"1 2", "a b" -split " "

1

2

a b

-split ("1 2", "a b")

1

2

a b

$a = "1 2", "a b" -split $a

1

2

a b

EXAMPLES

The following statement splits the string at whitespace.

C:\PS> -split "Windows PowerShell 2.0`nWindows PowerShell with remoting"

Windows PowerShell

2.0

Windows PowerShell with remoting

The following statement splits the string at any comma.

C:\PS> "Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" -split ','

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

The following statement splits the string at the pattern "er".

C:\PS>"Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" -split 'er'

M

cury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupit ,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune

The following statement performs a case-sensitive split at the letter "N".

C:\PS> "Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" -cSplit 'N'

Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus, eptune

The following statement splits the string at "e" and "t".

C:\PS> "Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" -split '[et]'

M

rcury,V nus, ar h,Mars,Jupi

r,Sa urn,Uranus,N p un

The following statement splits the string at "e" and "r", but limits the resulting substrings to six substrings.

C:\PS> "Mercury,Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune" -split '[er]', 6

M

cu y,V nus, arth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,Neptune

The following statement splits a string into three substrings.

C:\PS> "a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h" -split ",", 3

a b c,d,e,f,g,h

The following statement splits two strings into three substrings. (The limit is applied to each string independently.)

C:\PS> "a,b,c,d", "e,f,g,h" -split ",", 3

a b c,d e f g,h

The following statement splits each line in the here-string at the first digit. It uses the Multiline option to recognize the beginning of each line and string.

The 0 represents the "return all" value of the Max-substrings parameter. You can use options, such as Multiline, only when the Max-substrings value is specified.

C:\PS> $a = @' 1The first line. 2The second line. 3The third of three lines.

'@

C:\PS> $a -split "^\d", 0, "multiline"

The first line.

The second line.

The third of three lines.

The following statement uses the SimpleMatch option to direct the -split operator to interpret the dot (.) delimiter literally.

With the default, RegexMatch, the dot enclosed in quotation marks (".") is interpreted to match any character except for a newline character. As a result, the Split statement returns a blank line for every character except newline.

The 0 represents the "return all" value of the Max-substrings parameter. You can use options, such as SimpleMatch, only when the Max-substrings value is specified.

C:\PS> "This.is.a.test" -split ".", 0, "simplematch"

This is a test

The following statement splits the string at one of two delimiters, depending on the value of a variable.

C:\PS> $i = 1 C:\PS> $c = "LastName, FirstName; Address, City, State, Zip" C:\PS> $c -split {if ($i -lt 1) {$-eq ","} else {$-eq ";"}}

LastName, FirstName Address, City, State, Zip

The following split statements split an XML file first at the angle bracket and then at the semicolon. The result is a readable version of the XML file.

C:\PS> get-process PowerShell | export-clixml ps.xml C:\PS> $x = import-clixml ps.xml C:\PS> $x = $x -split "<" C:\PS> $x = $x -split ";"

To display the result, type "$x".

C:\PS> $x

@{__NounName=Process Name=PowerShell Handles=428

VM=150081536

WS=34840576

PM=36253696

...

SEE ALSO

Split-Path about_Operators about_Comparison_Operators about_Join

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