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JapaneseCalendar Class

Represents the Japanese calendar.

For a list of all members of this type, see JapaneseCalendar Members.


[Visual Basic]
Public Class JapaneseCalendar
   Inherits Calendar
public class JapaneseCalendar : Calendar
public __gc class JapaneseCalendar : public Calendar
class JapaneseCalendar extends Calendar

Thread Safety

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.


The Japanese calendar, which is also known as the Wareki calendar, works exactly like the Gregorian calendar, except that the year and era are different.

The Japanese calendar recognizes one era for every emperor's reign. The current era is the Heisei era, which began in the Gregorian calendar year 1989. The era name is typically displayed before the year. For example, the Gregorian calendar year 2001 is the Japanese calendar year Heisei 13. Note that the first year of an era is called "Gannen"; therefore, the Gregorian calendar year 1989 was the Japanese calendar year Heisei Gannen.

This class assigns numbers to the eras as follows:

GetEra value Era Name Era Abbreviation Gregorian Dates
4 平成 (Heisei) 平 (H, h) January 8, 1989 to present
3 昭和 (Showa) 昭 (S, s) December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989
2 大正 (Taisho) 大 (T, t) July 30, 1912 to December 24, 1926
1 明治 (Meiji) 明 (M, m) September 8, 1868 to July 29, 1912

This class only handles dates from the eighth day of the ninth month in the year Meiji 1 (September 8, 1868 of the Gregorian calendar). Although the Japanese calendar was switched from a lunar calendar to a solar calendar in the year Meiji 6 (1873 of the Gregorian calendar), this implementation is based on the solar calendar only.

Leap years in the Japanese calendar correspond to the same leap years in the Gregorian calendar. A leap year in the Gregorian calendar is defined as a Gregorian year that is evenly divisible by four, except if it is divisible by 100; however, Gregorian years that are divisible by 400 are leap years. A common year has 365 days and a leap year has 366 days.

The Japanese calendar has 12 months with 28 to 31 days each:

GetMonth value Month English Days in common years Days in leap years
1 1月 (Ichigatsu) January 31 31
2 2月 (Nigatsu) February 28 29
3 3月 (Sangatsu) March 31 31
4 4月 (Shigatsu) April 30 30
5 5月 (Gogatsu) May 31 31
6 6月 (Rokugatsu) June 30 30
7 7月 (Shichigatsu) July 31 31
8 8月 (Hachigatsu) August 31 31
9 9月 (Kugatsu) September 30 30
10 10月 (Juugatsu) October 31 31
11 11月 (Juuichigatsu) November 30 30
12 12月 (Juunigatsu) December 31 31

Nigatsu, which is equivalent to the Gregorian calendar month of February, has 29 days during leap years and 28 during common years.

The date January 1, 2001 A.D. in the Gregorian calendar is equivalent to the first day of Ichigatsu in the year Heisei 13 in the Japanese calendar.

If using the JapaneseCalendar class, DateTime.Parse will recognize the era abbreviations in front of the year; that is, either the single-character case-insensitive Latin alphabet abbreviation or the single-character Kanji abbreviation.

Each CultureInfo supports a set of calendars. The Calendar property returns the default calendar for the culture, and the OptionalCalendars property returns an array containing all the calendars supported by the culture. To change the calendar used by a CultureInfo, set the Calendar property of CultureInfo.DateTimeFormat to a new Calendar.


Namespace: System.Globalization

Platforms: Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 2000, Windows XP Home Edition, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003 family, .NET Compact Framework

Assembly: Mscorlib (in Mscorlib.dll)

See Also

JapaneseCalendar Members | System.Globalization Namespace | Calendar | GregorianCalendar | Calendar | OptionalCalendars

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