ALTER INDEX (Transact-SQL)
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ALTER INDEX (Transact-SQL)

 

Updated: March 3, 2016

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

Modifies an existing table or view index (relational or XML) by disabling, rebuilding, or reorganizing the index; or by setting options on the index.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

-- SQL Server syntax  
  
ALTER INDEX { index_name | ALL } ON <object>  
{  
      REBUILD {  
            [ PARTITION = ALL ] [ WITH ( <rebuild_index_option> [ ,...n ] ) ]   
          | [ PARTITION = partition_number [ WITH ( <single_partition_rebuild_index_option> ) [ ,...n ] ]  
      }  
    | DISABLE  
    | REORGANIZE  [ PARTITION = partition_number ] [ WITH ( <reorganize_option>  ) ]  
    | SET ( <set_index_option> [ ,...n ] )   
    }  
[ ; ]  
  
<object> ::=   
{  
    [ database_name. [ schema_name ] . | schema_name. ]   
    table_or_view_name  
}  
  
<rebuild_index_option > ::=  
{  
      PAD_INDEX = { ON | OFF }  
    | FILLFACTOR = fillfactor   
    | SORT_IN_TEMPDB = { ON | OFF }  
    | IGNORE_DUP_KEY = { ON | OFF }  
    | STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = { ON | OFF }  
    | STATISTICS_INCREMENTAL = { ON | OFF }  
    | ONLINE = {   
          ON [ (   
            WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY ( MAX_DURATION = <time> [ MINUTES ] ,  
            ABORT_AFTER_WAIT = { NONE | SELF | BLOCKERS } )   
          ) ]   
        | OFF }   
    | ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = { ON | OFF }  
    | ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = { ON | OFF }  
    | MAXDOP = max_degree_of_parallelism  
    | COMPRESSION_DELAY = {0 | delay [Minutes]}  
    | DATA_COMPRESSION = { NONE | ROW | PAGE | COLUMNSTORE | COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE }   
        [ ON PARTITIONS ( {<partition_number> [ TO <partition_number>] } [ , ...n ] ) ]  
}  
  
<single_partition_rebuild_index_option> ::=  
{  
      SORT_IN_TEMPDB = { ON | OFF }  
    | MAXDOP = max_degree_of_parallelism  
    | DATA_COMPRESSION = { NONE | ROW | PAGE | COLUMNSTORE | COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE} }  
    | ONLINE = { ON [ ( <low_priority_lock_wait> ) ] | OFF }  
}  
  
<reorganize_option>::=  
{  
       LOB_COMPACTION = { ON | OFF }  
    |  COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS =  { ON | OFF}  
}  
  
<set_index_option>::=  
{  
      ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = { ON | OFF }  
    | ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = { ON | OFF }  
    | IGNORE_DUP_KEY = { ON | OFF }  
    | STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = { ON | OFF }  
    | COMPRESSION_DELAY= {0 | delay [Minutes]}  
}  
  
<low_priority_lock_wait>::=  
{  
    WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY ( MAX_DURATION = <time> [ MINUTES ] ,   
                          ABORT_AFTER_WAIT = { NONE | SELF | BLOCKERS } )  
}  

-- Azure SQL Database syntax  
  
ALTER INDEX { index_name | ALL } ON <object>  
{  
      REBUILD [ WITH ( <rebuild_index_option> [ ,...n ] ) ]   
    | DISABLE  
    | REORGANIZE  [ PARTITION = partition_number ] [ WITH ( <reorganize_option>  ) ]  
    | SET ( <set_index_option> [ ,...n ] )   
}  
[ ; ]   
  
<object> ::=   
{  
    [ database_name. [ schema_name ] . | schema_name. ]   
    table_or_view_name  
}  
  
<rebuild_index_option > ::=   
{  
   IGNORE_DUP_KEY = { ON | OFF }  
  | STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = { ON | OFF }  
  | ONLINE = { ON | OFF }   
  | DATA_COMPRESSION = { NONE | ROW | PAGE }   
  | COMPRESSION_DELAY= {0 | delay [Minutes]}  
}  
  
<reorganize_option>::=  
{  
       LOB_COMPACTION = { ON | OFF }  
    |  COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS =  { ON | OFF}  
}  
  
<set_index_option>::=  
{  
      IGNORE_DUP_KEY = { ON | OFF }  
    | STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = { ON | OFF }  
}  
  

-- Azure SQL Data Warehouse and Parallel Data Warehouse syntax  
  
ALTER INDEX { index_name | ALL }  
    ON   [ schema_name. ] table_name  
{  
      REBUILD {  
            [ PARTITION = ALL [ WITH ( <rebuild_index_option> ) ] ] 
          | [ PARTITION = partition_number [ WITH ( <single_partition_rebuild_index_option> )] ] 
      }  
    | DISABLE  
    | REORGANIZE [ PARTITION = partition_number ]  
}  
[;]  

<rebuild_index_option > ::=   
{  
    DATA_COMPRESSION = { COLUMNSTORE | COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE }
        [ ON PARTITIONS ( {<partition_number> [ TO <partition_number>] } [ , ...n ] ) ]   
}

<single_partition_rebuild_index_option > ::=   
{  
    DATA_COMPRESSION = { COLUMNSTORE | COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE }  
}  
  

index_name
Is the name of the index. Index names must be unique within a table or view but do not have to be unique within a database. Index names must follow the rules of identifiers.

ALL
Specifies all indexes associated with the table or view regardless of the index type. Specifying ALL causes the statement to fail if one or more indexes are in an offline or read-only filegroup or the specified operation is not allowed on one or more index types. The following table lists the index operations and disallowed index types.

Specifying ALL with this operationFails if the table has one or more
REBUILD WITH ONLINE = ONXML index

Spatial index

Columnstore index : Applies to:SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
REBUILD PARTITION = partition_numberNonpartitioned index, XML index, spatial index, or disabled index
REORGANIZEIndexes with ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS set to OFF
REORGANIZE PARTITION = partition_numberNonpartitioned index, XML index, spatial index, or disabled index
IGNORE_DUP_KEY = ONXML index

Spatial index

Columnstore index : Applies to:SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
ONLINE = ONXML index

Spatial index

Columnstore index : Applies to:SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
System_CAPS_ICON_warning.jpg Warning


For more detailed information about index operations that can be performed online, see Guidelines for Online Index Operations.

If ALL is specified with PARTITION = partition_number, all indexes must be aligned. This means that they are partitioned based on equivalent partition functions. Using ALL with PARTITION causes all index partitions with the same partition_number to be rebuilt or reorganized. For more information about partitioned indexes, see Partitioned Tables and Indexes.

database_name
Is the name of the database.

schema_name
Is the name of the schema to which the table or view belongs.

table_or_view_name
Is the name of the table or view associated with the index. To display a report of the indexes on an object, use the sys.indexes catalog view.

Windows Azure SQL Database supports the three-part name format database_name.[schema_name].table_or_view_name when the database_name is the current database or the database_name is tempdb and the table_or_view_name starts with #.

REBUILD [ WITH (<rebuild_index_option> [ ,... n]) ]
Specifies the index will be rebuilt using the same columns, index type, uniqueness attribute, and sort order. This clause is equivalent to DBCC DBREINDEX. REBUILD enables a disabled index. Rebuilding a clustered index does not rebuild associated nonclustered indexes unless the keyword ALL is specified. If index options are not specified, the existing index option values stored in sys.indexes are applied. For any index option whose value is not stored in sys.indexes, the default indicated in the argument definition of the option applies.

If ALL is specified and the underlying table is a heap, the rebuild operation has no effect on the table. Any nonclustered indexes associated with the table are rebuilt.

The rebuild operation can be minimally logged if the database recovery model is set to either bulk-logged or simple.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


When you rebuild a primary XML index, the underlying user table is unavailable for the duration of the index operation.

Applies to: SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

For columnstore indexes, the rebuild operation:

  1. Does not use the sort order.

  2. Acquires an exclusive lock on the table or partition while the rebuild occurs. The data is “offline” and unavailable during the rebuild, even when using NOLOCK, RCSI, or SI.

  3. Re-compresses all data into the columnstore. Two copies of the columnstore index exist while the rebuild is taking place. When the rebuild is finished, SQL Server deletes the original columnstore index.

For more information about rebuilding columnstore indexes, see Columnstore Indexes Defragmentation

PARTITION

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies that only one partition of an index will be rebuilt or reorganized. PARTITION cannot be specified if index_name is not a partitioned index.

PARTITION = ALL rebuilds all partitions.

System_CAPS_ICON_warning.jpg Warning


Creating and rebuilding nonaligned indexes on a table with more than 1,000 partitions is possible, but is not supported. Doing so may cause degraded performance or excessive memory consumption during these operations. We recommend using only aligned indexes when the number of partitions exceed 1,000.

partition_number

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Is the partition number of a partitioned index that is to be rebuilt or reorganized. partition_number is a constant expression that can reference variables. These include user-defined type variables or functions and user-defined functions, but cannot reference a Transact-SQL statement. partition_number must exist or the statement fails.

WITH (<single_partition_rebuild_index_option>)

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

SORT_IN_TEMPDB, MAXDOP, and DATA_COMPRESSION are the options that can be specified when you rebuild a single partition (PARTITION = n). XML indexes cannot be specified in a single partition rebuild operation.

DISABLE
Marks the index as disabled and unavailable for use by the Database Engine. Any index can be disabled. The index definition of a disabled index remains in the system catalog with no underlying index data. Disabling a clustered index prevents user access to the underlying table data. To enable an index, use ALTER INDEX REBUILD or CREATE INDEX WITH DROP_EXISTING. For more information, see Disable Indexes and Constraints and Enable Indexes and Constraints.

REORGANIZE a rowstore index
For rowstore indexes, REORGANIZE specifies to reorganize the index leaf level. The REORGANIZE operation is:

  • Always performed online. This means long-term blocking table locks are not held and queries or updates to the underlying table can continue during the ALTER INDEX REORGANIZE transaction.

  • Not allowed for a disabled index

  • Not allowed when ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS is set to OFF

  • Not rolled back when it is performed within a transaction and the transaction is rolled back.

REORGANIZE WITH ( LOB_COMPACTION = { ON | OFF } )
Applies to rowstore indexes.

LOB_COMPACTION = ON

  • Specifies to compact all pages that contain data of these large object (LOB) data types: image, text, ntext, varchar(max), nvarchar(max), varbinary(max), and xml. Compacting this data can reduce the data size on disk.

  • For a clustered index, this compacts all LOB columns that are contained in the table.

  • For a nonclustered index, this compacts all LOB columns that are nonkey (included) columns in the index.

  • REORGANIZE ALL performs LOB_COMPACTION on all indexes. For each index, this compacts all LOB columns in the clustered index, underlying table, or included columns in a nonclustered index..

LOB_COMPACTION = OFF

  • Pages that contain large object data are not compacted.

  • OFF has no effect on a heap.

REORGANIZE a columnstore index
REORGANIZE is performed online.

For columnstore indexes, REORGANIZE compresses each CLOSED delta rowgroup into the columnstore as a compressed rowgroup.

  • REORGANIZE is not required in order to move CLOSED delta rowgroups into compressed rowgroups. The background tuple-mover (TM) process wakes up periodically to compress CLOSED delta rowgroups. We recommend using REORGANIZE when tuple-mover is falling behind. REORGANIZE can compress rowgroups more aggressively.

  • To compress all OPEN and CLOSED rowgroups, see the REBUILD WITH (COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS) option in this section.

For columnstore indexes in SQL Server (starting with 2016) and Azure SQL Database, REORGANIZE performs the following additional defragmentation optimizations online:

  • Physically removes rows from a rowgroup when 10% or more of the rows have been logically deleted. The deleted bytes are reclaimed on the physical media. For example, if a compressed row group of 1 million rows has 100K rows deleted, SQL Server will remove the deleted rows and recompress the rowgroup with 900k rows. It saves on the storage by removing deleted rows.

  • Combines one or more compressed rowgroups to increase rows per rowgroup up to the maximum of 1,024,576 rows. For example, if you bulk import 5 batches of 102,400 rows you will get 5 compressed rowgroups. If you run REORGANIZE, these rowgroups will get merged into 1 compressed rowgroup of size 512,000 rows. This assumes there were no dictionary size or memory limitations.

  • For rowgroups in which 10% or more of the rows have been logically deleted, SQL Server will try to combine this rowgroup with one or more rowgroups. For example, rowgroup 1 is compressed with 500,000 rows and rowgroup 21 is compressed with the maximum of 1,048,576 rows. Rowgroup 21 has 60% of the rows deleted which leaves 409,830 rows. SQL Server favors combining these two rowgroups to compress a new rowgroup that has 909,830 rows.

REORGANIZE WITH ( COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS = { ON | OFF } )
In SQL Server (starting with 2016) and Azure SQL Database, the COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS provides a way to force OPEN or CLOSED delta rowgroups into the columnstore. With this option, it is not necessary to rebuild the columnstore index to empty the delta rowgroups. This, combined with the other remove and merge defragmentation features makes it no longer necessary to rebuild the index in most situations.

  • ON forces all rowgroups into the columnstore, regardless of size and state (CLOSED or OPEN).

  • OFF forces all CLOSED rowgroups into the columnstore.

SET ( <set_index option> [ ,... n] )
Specifies index options without rebuilding or reorganizing the index. SET cannot be specified for a disabled index.

PAD_INDEX = { ON | OFF }

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies index padding. The default is OFF.

ON
The percentage of free space that is specified by FILLFACTOR is applied to the intermediate-level pages of the index. If FILLFACTOR is not specified at the same time PAD_INDEX is set to ON, the fill factor value stored in sys.indexes is used.

OFF or fillfactor is not specified
The intermediate-level pages are filled to near capacity. This leaves sufficient space for at least one row of the maximum size that the index can have, based on the set of keys on the intermediate pages.

For more information, see CREATE INDEX (Transact-SQL).

FILLFACTOR = fillfactor

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies a percentage that indicates how full the Database Engine should make the leaf level of each index page during index creation or alteration. fillfactor must be an integer value from 1 to 100. The default is 0. Fill factor values 0 and 100 are the same in all respects.

An explicit FILLFACTOR setting applies only when the index is first created or rebuilt. The Database Engine does not dynamically keep the specified percentage of empty space in the pages. For more information, see CREATE INDEX (Transact-SQL).

To view the fill factor setting, use sys.indexes.

System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


Creating or altering a clustered index with a FILLFACTOR value affects the amount of storage space the data occupies, because the Database Engine redistributes the data when it creates the clustered index.

SORT_IN_TEMPDB = { ON | OFF }

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies whether to store the sort results in tempdb. The default is OFF.

ON
The intermediate sort results that are used to build the index are stored in tempdb. If tempdb is on a different set of disks than the user database, this may reduce the time needed to create an index. However, this increases the amount of disk space that is used during the index build.

OFF
The intermediate sort results are stored in the same database as the index.

If a sort operation is not required, or if the sort can be performed in memory, the SORT_IN_TEMPDB option is ignored.

For more information, see SORT_IN_TEMPDB Option For Indexes.

IGNORE_DUP_KEY = { ON | OFF }
Specifies the error response when an insert operation attempts to insert duplicate key values into a unique index. The IGNORE_DUP_KEY option applies only to insert operations after the index is created or rebuilt. The default is OFF.

ON
A warning message will occur when duplicate key values are inserted into a unique index. Only the rows violating the uniqueness constraint will fail.

OFF
An error message will occur when duplicate key values are inserted into a unique index. The entire INSERT operation will be rolled back.

IGNORE_DUP_KEY cannot be set to ON for indexes created on a view, non-unique indexes, XML indexes, spatial indexes, and filtered indexes.

To view IGNORE_DUP_KEY, use sys.indexes.

In backward compatible syntax, WITH IGNORE_DUP_KEY is equivalent to WITH IGNORE_DUP_KEY = ON.

STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = { ON | OFF }
Specifies whether distribution statistics are recomputed. The default is OFF.

ON
Out-of-date statistics are not automatically recomputed.

OFF
Automatic statistics updating are enabled.

To restore automatic statistics updating, set the STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE to OFF, or execute UPDATE STATISTICS without the NORECOMPUTE clause.

System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


Disabling automatic recomputation of distribution statistics may prevent the query optimizer from picking optimal execution plans for queries that involve the table.

STATISTICS_INCREMENTAL = { ON | OFF }
When ON, the statistics created are per partition statistics. When OFF, the statistics tree is dropped and SQL Server re-computes the statistics. The default is OFF.

If per partition statistics are not supported the option is ignored and a warning is generated. Incremental stats are not supported for following statistics types:

  • Statistics created with indexes that are not partition-aligned with the base table.

  • Statistics created on Always On readable secondary databases.

  • Statistics created on read-only databases.

  • Statistics created on filtered indexes.

  • Statistics created on views.

  • Statistics created on internal tables.

  • Statistics created with spatial indexes or XML indexes.

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

ONLINE = { ON | OFF } <as applies to rebuild_index_option>
Specifies whether underlying tables and associated indexes are available for queries and data modification during the index operation. The default is OFF.

For an XML index or spatial index, only ONLINE = OFF is supported, and if ONLINE is set to ON an error is raised.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


Online index operations are not available in every edition of MicrosoftSQL Server. For a list of features that are supported by the editions of SQL Server, see Features Supported by the Editions of SQL Server 2016.

ON
Long-term table locks are not held for the duration of the index operation. During the main phase of the index operation, only an Intent Share (IS) lock is held on the source table. This allows queries or updates to the underlying table and indexes to continue. At the start of the operation, a Shared (S) lock is very briefly held on the source object. At the end of the operation, an S lock is very briefly held on the source if a nonclustered index is being created, or an SCH-M (Schema Modification) lock is acquired when a clustered index is created or dropped online, or when a clustered or nonclustered index is being rebuilt. ONLINE cannot be set to ON when an index is being created on a local temporary table.

OFF
Table locks are applied for the duration of the index operation. An offline index operation that creates, rebuilds, or drops a clustered, spatial, or XML index, or rebuilds or drops a nonclustered index, acquires a Schema modification (Sch-M) lock on the table. This prevents all user access to the underlying table for the duration of the operation. An offline index operation that creates a nonclustered index acquires a Shared (S) lock on the table. This prevents updates to the underlying table but allows read operations, such as SELECT statements.

For more information, see How Online Index Operations Work.

Indexes, including indexes on global temp tables, can be rebuilt online with the following exceptions:

  • XML indexes

  • Indexes on local temp tables

  • A subset of a partitioned index (An entire partitioned index can be rebuilt online.)

  • varchar(max) and varbinary(max) columns cannot be part of an index. In SQL Server (beginning with SQL Server 2012) and in SQL Database V12, when a table contains varchar(max) or varbinary(max) columns, a clustered index containing other columns, can be built or rebuilt using the ONLINE option. SQL Database does not permit the ONLINE option when the base table contains varchar(max) or varbinary(max) columns.

ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = { ON | OFF }

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies whether row locks are allowed. The default is ON.

ON
Row locks are allowed when accessing the index. The Database Engine determines when row locks are used.

OFF
Row locks are not used.

ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = { ON | OFF }

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies whether page locks are allowed. The default is ON.

ON
Page locks are allowed when you access the index. The Database Engine determines when page locks are used.

OFF
Page locks are not used.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


An index cannot be reorganized when ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS is set to OFF.

MAXDOP =max_degree_of_parallelism

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12 (Performance Levels P2 and P3 only).

Overrides the max degree of parallelism configuration option for the duration of the index operation. For more information, see Configure the max degree of parallelism Server Configuration Option. Use MAXDOP to limit the number of processors used in a parallel plan execution. The maximum is 64 processors.

System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


Although the MAXDOP option is syntactically supported for all XML indexes, for a spatial index or a primary XML index, ALTER INDEX currently uses only a single processor.

max_degree_of_parallelism can be:

1
Suppresses parallel plan generation.

>1
Restricts the maximum number of processors used in a parallel index operation to the specified number.

0 (default)
Uses the actual number of processors or fewer based on the current system workload.

For more information, see Configure Parallel Index Operations.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


Parallel index operations are not available in every edition of MicrosoftSQL Server. For a list of features that are supported by the editions of SQL Server, see Features Supported by the Editions of SQL Server 2016.

COMPRESSION_DELAY = { 0 |duration [Minutes] }
This feature will be available after SQL Server 2016 CTP 3.3

For a disk-based table, delay specifies the minimum number of minutes a delta rowgroup in the CLOSED state must remain in the delta rowgroup before SQL Server can compress it into the compressed rowgroup. Since disk-based tables don't track insert and update times on individual rows, SQL Server applies the delay to delta rowgroups in the CLOSED state.
The default is 0 minutes.

The default is 0 minutes.

For recommendations on when to use COMPRESSION_DELAY, see Columnstore Indexes for Real-Time Operational Analytics.

DATA_COMPRESSION
Specifies the data compression option for the specified index, partition number, or range of partitions. The options are as follows:

NONE
Index or specified partitions are not compressed. This does not apply to columnstore indexes.

ROW
Index or specified partitions are compressed by using row compression. This does not apply to columnstore indexes.

PAGE
Index or specified partitions are compressed by using page compression. This does not apply to columnstore indexes.

COLUMNSTORE

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Applies only to columnstore indexes, including both nonclustered columnstore and clustered columnstore indexes. COLUMNSTORE specifies to decompress the index or specified partitions that are compressed with the COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE option. When the data is restored, it will continue to be compressed with the columnstore compression that is used for all columnstore indexes.

COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Applies only to columnstore indexes, including both nonclustered columnstore and clustered columnstore indexes. COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE will further compress the specified partition to a smaller size. This can be used for archival, or for other situations that require a smaller storage size and can afford more time for storage and retrieval.

For more information about compression, see Data Compression.

ON PARTITIONS ( { <partition_number_expression> | <range> } [,...n] )

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

Specifies the partitions to which the DATA_COMPRESSION setting applies. If the index is not partitioned, the ON PARTITIONS argument will generate an error. If the ON PARTITIONS clause is not provided, the DATA_COMPRESSION option applies to all partitions of a partitioned index.

<partition_number_expression> can be specified in the following ways:

  • Provide the number for a partition, for example: ON PARTITIONS (2).

  • Provide the partition numbers for several individual partitions separated by commas, for example: ON PARTITIONS (1, 5).

  • Provide both ranges and individual partitions: ON PARTITIONS (2, 4, 6 TO 8).

<range> can be specified as partition numbers separated by the word TO, for example: ON PARTITIONS (6 TO 8).

To set different types of data compression for different partitions, specify the DATA_COMPRESSION option more than once, for example:

REBUILD WITH   
(  
DATA_COMPRESSION = NONE ON PARTITIONS (1),   
DATA_COMPRESSION = ROW ON PARTITIONS (2, 4, 6 TO 8),   
DATA_COMPRESSION = PAGE ON PARTITIONS (3, 5)  
);  

ONLINE = { ON | OFF } <as applies to single_partition_rebuild_index_option>
Specifies whether an index or an index partition of an underlying table can be rebuild online or offline. If REBUILD is performed online (ON) the data in this table is available for queries and data modification during the index operation. The default is OFF.

ON
Long-term table locks are not held for the duration of the index operation. During the main phase of the index operation, only an Intent Share (IS) lock is held on the source table. A S-lock on the table is required in the beginning of the index rebuild and a Sch-M lock on the table at the end of the online index rebuild. Although both locks are short metadata locks, especially the Sch-M lock must wait for all blocking transactions to be completed. During the wait time the Sch-M lock blocks all other transactions that wait behind this lock when accessing the same table.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


Online index rebuild can set the low_priority_lock_wait options described later in this section.

OFF
Table locks are applied for the duration of the index operation. This prevents all user access to the underlying table for the duration of the operation.

WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

An online index rebuild has to wait for blocking operations on this table. WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY indicates that the online index rebuild operation will wait for low priority locks, allowing other operations to proceed while the online index build operation is waiting. Omitting the WAIT AT LOW PRIORITY option is equivalent to WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY ( MAX_DURATION = 0 minutes, ABORT_AFTER_WAIT = NONE).

MAX_DURATION = time [MINUTES ]

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

The wait time (an integer value specified in minutes) that the online index rebuild locks will wait with low priority when executing the DDL command. If the operation is blocked for the MAX_DURATION time, one of the ABORT_AFTER_WAIT actions will be executed. MAX_DURATION time is always in minutes, and the word MINUTES can be omitted.

ABORT_AFTER_WAIT = [NONE | SELF | BLOCKERS } ]

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.

NONE
Continue waiting for the lock with normal (regular) priority.

SELF
Exit the online index rebuild DDL operation currently being executed without taking any action.

BLOCKERS
Kill all user transactions that block the online index rebuild DDL operation so that the operation can continue. The BLOCKERS option requires the login to have ALTER ANY CONNECTION permission.

ALTER INDEX cannot be used to repartition an index or move it to a different filegroup. This statement cannot be used to modify the index definition, such as adding or deleting columns or changing the column order. Use CREATE INDEX with the DROP_EXISTING clause to perform these operations.

When an option is not explicitly specified, the current setting is applied. For example, if a FILLFACTOR setting is not specified in the REBUILD clause, the fill factor value stored in the system catalog will be used during the rebuild process. To view the current index option settings, use sys.indexes.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


The values for ONLINE, MAXDOP, and SORT_IN_TEMPDB are not stored in the system catalog. Unless specified in the index statement, the default value for the option is used.

On multiprocessor computers, just like other queries do, ALTER INDEX REBUILD automatically uses more processors to perform the scan and sort operations that are associated with modifying the index. When you run ALTER INDEX REORGANIZE, with or without LOB_COMPACTION, the max degree of parallelism value is a single threaded operation. For more information, see Configure Parallel Index Operations.

An index cannot be reorganized or rebuilt if the filegroup in which it is located is offline or set to read-only. When the keyword ALL is specified and one or more indexes are in an offline or read-only filegroup, the statement fails.

Rebuilding an index drops and re-creates the index. This removes fragmentation, reclaims disk space by compacting the pages based on the specified or existing fill factor setting, and reorders the index rows in contiguous pages. When ALL is specified, all indexes on the table are dropped and rebuilt in a single transaction. FOREIGN KEY constraints do not have to be dropped in advance. When indexes with 128 extents or more are rebuilt, the Database Engine defers the actual page deallocations, and their associated locks, until after the transaction commits.

Rebuilding or reorganizing small indexes often does not reduce fragmentation. The pages of small indexes are sometimes stored on mixed extents. Mixed extents are shared by up to eight objects, so the fragmentation in a small index might not be reduced after reorganizing or rebuilding it.

In SQL Server 2016, statistics are not created by scanning all the rows in the table when a partitioned index is created or rebuilt. Instead, the query optimizer uses the default sampling algorithm to generate statistics. To obtain statistics on partitioned indexes by scanning all the rows in the table, use CREATE STATISTICS or UPDATE STATISTICS with the FULLSCAN clause.

In earlier versions of SQL Server, you could sometimes rebuild a nonclustered index to correct inconsistencies caused by hardware failures. In SQL Server 2008 and later, you may still be able to repair such inconsistencies between the index and the clustered index by rebuilding a nonclustered index offline. However, you cannot repair nonclustered index inconsistencies by rebuilding the index online, because the online rebuild mechanism will use the existing nonclustered index as the basis for the rebuild and thus persist the inconsistency. Rebuilding the index offline can sometimes force a scan of the clustered index (or heap) and so remove the inconsistency. To assure a rebuild from the clustered index, drop and recreate the non-clustered index. As with earlier versions, we recommend recovering from inconsistencies by restoring the affected data from a backup; however, you may be able to repair the index inconsistencies by rebuilding the nonclustered index offline. For more information, see DBCC CHECKDB (Transact-SQL).

To rebuild a clustered columnstore index, SQL Server:

  1. Acquires an exclusive lock on the table or partition while the rebuild occurs. The data is “offline” and unavailable during the rebuild.

  2. Defragments the columnstore by physically deleting rows that have been logically deleted from the table; the deleted bytes are reclaimed on the physical media.

  3. Reads all data from the original columnstore index, including the deltastore. It combines the data into new rowgroups, and compresses the rowgroups into the columnstore.

  4. Requires space on the physical media to store two copies of the columnstore index while the rebuild is taking place. When the rebuild is finished, SQL Server deletes the original clustered columnstore index.

Reorganizing an index uses minimal system resources. It defragments the leaf level of clustered and nonclustered indexes on tables and views by physically reordering the leaf-level pages to match the logical, left to right, order of the leaf nodes. Reorganizing also compacts the index pages. Compaction is based on the existing fill factor value. To view the fill factor setting, use sys.indexes.

When ALL is specified, relational indexes, both clustered and nonclustered, and XML indexes on the table are reorganized. Some restrictions apply when specifying ALL, see the definition for ALL in the Arguments section.

For more information, see Reorganize and Rebuild Indexes.

Disabling an index prevents user access to the index, and for clustered indexes, to the underlying table data. The index definition remains in the system catalog. Disabling a nonclustered index or clustered index on a view physically deletes the index data. Disabling a clustered index prevents access to the data, but the data remains unmaintained in the B-tree until the index is dropped or rebuilt. To view the status of an enabled or disabled index, query the is_disabled column in the sys.indexes catalog view.

If a table is in a transactional replication publication, you cannot disable any indexes that are associated with primary key columns. These indexes are required by replication. To disable an index, you must first drop the table from the publication. For more information, see Publish Data and Database Objects.

Use the ALTER INDEX REBUILD statement or the CREATE INDEX WITH DROP_EXISTING statement to enable the index. Rebuilding a disabled clustered index cannot be performed with the ONLINE option set to ON. For more information, see Disable Indexes and Constraints.

You can set the options ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS, ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS, IGNORE_DUP_KEY and STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE for a specified index without rebuilding or reorganizing that index. The modified values are immediately applied to the index. To view these settings, use sys.indexes. For more information, see Set Index Options.

Row and Page Locks Options

When ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = ON and ALLOW_PAGE_LOCK = ON, row-level, page-level, and table-level locks are allowed when you access the index. The Database Engine chooses the appropriate lock and can escalate the lock from a row or page lock to a table lock.

When ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = OFF and ALLOW_PAGE_LOCK = OFF, only a table-level lock is allowed when you access the index.

If ALL is specified when the row or page lock options are set, the settings are applied to all indexes. When the underlying table is a heap, the settings are applied in the following ways:

ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = ON or OFFTo the heap and any associated nonclustered indexes.
ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = ONTo the heap and any associated nonclustered indexes.
ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = OFFFully to the nonclustered indexes. This means that all page locks are not allowed on the nonclustered indexes. On the heap, only the shared (S), update (U) and exclusive (X) locks for the page are not allowed. The Database Engine can still acquire an intent page lock (IS, IU or IX) for internal purposes.

When rebuilding an index and the ONLINE option is set to ON, the underlying objects, the tables and associated indexes, are available for queries and data modification. You can also rebuild online a portion of an index residing on a single partition. Exclusive table locks are held only for a very short amount of time during the alteration process.

Reorganizing an index is always performed online. The process does not hold locks long term and, therefore, does not block queries or updates that are running.

You can perform concurrent online index operations on the same table or table partition only when doing the following:

  • Creating multiple nonclustered indexes.

  • Reorganizing different indexes on the same table.

  • Reorganizing different indexes while rebuilding nonoverlapping indexes on the same table.

All other online index operations performed at the same time fail. For example, you cannot rebuild two or more indexes on the same table concurrently, or create a new index while rebuilding an existing index on the same table.

For more information, see Perform Index Operations Online.

WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY

In order to execute the DDL statement for an online index rebuild, all active blocking transactions running on a particular table must be completed. When the online index rebuild executes, it blocks all new transactions that are ready to start execution on this table. Although the duration of the lock for online index rebuild is very short, waiting for all open transactions on a given table to complete and blocking the new transactions to start, might significantly affect the throughput, causing a workload slow down or timeout, and significantly limit access to the underlying table. The WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY option allows DBA's to manage the S-lock and Sch-M locks required for online index rebuilds and allows them to select one of 3 options. In all 3 cases, if during the wait time ( (MAX_DURATION = n [minutes]) ) there are no blocking activities, the online index rebuild is executed immediately without waiting and the DDL statement is completed.

When you rebuild a spatial index, the underlying user table is unavailable for the duration of the index operation because the spatial index holds a schema lock.

The PRIMARY KEY constraint in the user table cannot be modified while a spatial index is defined on a column of that table. To change the PRIMARY KEY constraint, first drop every spatial index of the table. After modifying the PRIMARY KEy constraint, you can re-create each of the spatial indexes.

In a single partition rebuild operation, you cannot specify any spatial indexes. However, you can specify spatial indexes in a complete partition rebuild.

To change options that are specific to a spatial index, such as BOUNDING_BOX or GRID, you can either use a CREATE SPATIAL INDEX statement that specifies DROP_EXISTING = ON, or drop the spatial index and create a new one. For an example, see CREATE SPATIAL INDEX (Transact-SQL).

For a more information about data compression, see Data Compression.

To evaluate how changing PAGE and ROW compression will affect a table, an index, or a partition, use the sp_estimate_data_compression_savings stored procedure.

The following restrictions apply to partitioned indexes:

  • When you use ALTER INDEX ALL ..., you cannot change the compression setting of a single partition if the table has nonaligned indexes.

  • The ALTER INDEX <index> ... REBUILD PARTITION ... syntax rebuilds the specified partition of the index.

  • The ALTER INDEX <index> ... REBUILD WITH ... syntax rebuilds all partitions of the index.

When you execute ALTER INDEX ALL … on a table, only the statistics associates with indexes are updated. Automatic or manual statistics created on the table (instead of an index) are not updated.

To execute ALTER INDEX, at a minimum, ALTER permission on the table or view is required.

  • Azure SQL Database does not use filegroup and filestream options.

  • Columnstore indexes are not available prior to SQL Server 2012.

These examples apply to columnstore indexes.

REORGANIZE demo

This example demonstrates how the ALTER INDEX REORGANIZE command works. It creates a table that has multiple rowgroups, and then demonstrates how REORGANIZE merges the rowgroups.

-- Create a database   
CREATE DATABASE [ columnstore ];  
GO  
  
-- Create a rowstore staging table  
CREATE TABLE [ staging ] (  
     AccountKey              int NOT NULL,  
     AccountDescription      nvarchar (50),  
     AccountType             nvarchar(50),  
     AccountCodeAlternateKey     int  
     )  
  
-- Insert 10 million rows into the staging table.   
DECLARE @loop int  
DECLARE @AccountDescription varchar(50)  
DECLARE @AccountKey int  
DECLARE @AccountType varchar(50)  
DECLARE @AccountCode int  
  
SELECT @loop = 0  
BEGIN TRAN  
    WHILE (@loop < 300000)   
      BEGIN  
        SELECT @AccountKey = CAST (RAND()*10000000 as int);  
        SELECT @AccountDescription = 'accountdesc ' + CONVERT(varchar(20), @AccountKey);  
        SELECT @AccountType = 'AccountType ' + CONVERT(varchar(20), @AccountKey);  
        SELECT @AccountCode =  CAST (RAND()*10000000 as int);  
  
        INSERT INTO  staging VALUES (@AccountKey, @AccountDescription, @AccountType, @AccountCode);  
  
        SELECT @loop = @loop + 1;  
    END  
COMMIT  
  
-- Create a table for the clustered columnstore index  
  
CREATE TABLE cci_target (  
     AccountKey              int NOT NULL,  
     AccountDescription      nvarchar (50),  
     AccountType             nvarchar(50),  
     AccountCodeAlternateKey int  
     )  
  
-- Convert the table to a clustered columnstore index named inxcci_cci_target;  
CREATE CLUSTERED COLUMNSTORE INDEX idxcci_cci_target ON cci_target;  
  

Use the TABLOCK option to insert rows in parallel. Starting with SQL Server 2016, the INSERT INTO operation can run in parallel when TABLOCK is used.

INSERT INTO cci_target WITH (TABLOCK) SELECT TOP 300000 * FROM staging;  

Run this command to see the OPEN delta rowgroups. The number of rowgroups depends on the degree of parallelism.

SELECT *   
FROM sys.dm_db_column_store_row_group_physical_stats   
WHERE object_id  = object_id('cci_target');  

Run this command to force all CLOSED and OPEN rowgroups into the columnstore.

ALTER INDEX idxcci_cci_target ON cci_target REORGANIZE WITH (COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS = ON);  

Run this command again and you will see that smaller rowgroups are merged into one compressed rowgroup.

ALTER INDEX idxcci_cci_target ON cci_target REORGANIZE WITH (COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS = ON);  

A. Compress CLOSED delta rowgroups into the columnstore

This example uses the REORGANIZE option to compresses each CLOSED delta rowgroup into the columnstore as a compressed rowgroup. This is not necessary, but is useful when the tuple-mover is not compressing CLOSED rowgroups fast enough.

-- Uses AdventureWorksDW  
-- REORGANIZE all partitions  
ALTER INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2 ON FactInternetSales2 REORGANIZE ;  
  
-- REORGANIZE a specific partition  
ALTER INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2 ON FactInternetSales2 REORGANIZE PARTITION = 0 ;  
  

B. Compress all OPEN AND CLOSED delta rowgroups into the columnstore

Does not apply to: SQL Server 2012 and 2014

Starting with SQL Server 2016, you can run REORGANIZE WITH ( COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS =ON ) to compress each OPEN and CLOSED delta rowgroup into the columnstore as a compressed rowgroup. This empties the deltastores and forces all rows to get compressed into the columnstore. This is useful especially after performing many insert operations since these operations store the rows in one or more deltastores.

REORGANIZE combines rowgroups to fill rowgroups up to a maximum number of rows <= 1,024,576. Therefore, when you compress all OPEN and CLOSED rowgroups you won't end up with lots of compressed rowgroups that only have a few rows in them. You want rowgroups to be as full as possible to reduce the compressed size and improve query performance.

-- Uses AdventureWorksDW2016CTP3  
-- Move all OPEN and CLOSED delta rowgroups into the columnstore.  
ALTER INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2 ON FactInternetSales2 REORGANIZE WITH ( COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS = ON ) ;  
  
-- For a specific partition, move all OPEN AND CLOSED delta rowgroups into the columnstore  
ALTER INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2 ON FactInternetSales2 REORGANIZE PARTITION = 0 WITH ( COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS = ON );  
  

C. Defragment a columnstore index online

Does not apply to: SQL Server 2012 and 2014.

Starting with SQL Server 2016, REORGANIZE does more than compress delta rowgroups into the columnstore. It also performs online defragmentation. First, it reduces the size of the columnstore by physically removing deleted rows when 10% or more of the rows in a rowgroup have been deleted. Then, it combines rowgroups together to form larger rowgroups that have up to the maximum of 1,024,576 rows per rowgroups. All rowgroups that are changed get re-compressed.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


Starting with SQL Server 2016, rebuilding a columnstore index is no longer necessary in most situations since REORGANIZE physically removes deleted rows and merges rowgroups. The COMPRESS_ALL_ROW_GROUPS option forces all OPEN or CLOSED delta rowgroups into the columnstore which previously could only be done with a rebuild. REORGANIZE is online and occurs in the background so queries can continue as the operation happens.

-- Uses AdventureWorks  
-- Defragment by physically removing rows that have been logically deleted from the table, and merging rowgroups.  
ALTER INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2 ON FactInternetSales2 REORGANIZE ;  
  

D. Rebuild a clustered columnstore index offline

Applies to: SQL Server 2012, SQL Server 2014

Starting with SQL Server 2016, we recommend using ALTER INDEX REORGANIZE instead of ALTER INDEX REBUILD.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note


In SQL Server 2012 and 2014, REORGANIZE is only used to compress CLOSED rowgroups into the columnstore. The only way to perform defragmentation operations and to force all delta rowgroups into the columnstore is to rebuild the index.

This example shows how to rebuild a clustered columnstore index and force all delta rowgroups into the columnstore. This first step prepares a table FactInternetSales2 with a clustered columnstore index and inserts data from the first four columns.

-- Uses AdventureWorksDW  
  
CREATE TABLE dbo.FactInternetSales2 (  
    ProductKey [int] NOT NULL,   
    OrderDateKey [int] NOT NULL,   
    DueDateKey [int] NOT NULL,   
    ShipDateKey [int] NOT NULL);  
  
CREATE CLUSTERED COLUMNSTORE INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2  
ON dbo.FactInternetSales2;  
  
INSERT INTO dbo.FactInternetSales2  
SELECT ProductKey, OrderDateKey, DueDateKey, ShipDateKey  
FROM dbo.FactInternetSales;  
  
SELECT * FROM sys.column_store_row_groups;  
  

The results show there is one OPEN rowgroup, which means SQL Server will wait for more rows to be added before it closes the rowgroup and moves the data to the columnstore. This next statement rebuilds the clustered columnstore index, which forces all rows into the columnstore.

ALTER INDEX cci_FactInternetSales2 ON FactInternetSales2 REBUILD;  
SELECT * FROM sys.column_store_row_groups;  
  

The results of the SELECT statement show the rowgroup is COMPRESSED, which means the column segments of the rowgroup are now compressed and stored in the columnstore.

E. Rebuild a partition of a clustered columnstore index offline

Use this for: SQL Server 2012, SQL Server 2014

To rebuild a partition of a large clustered columnstore index, use ALTER INDEX REBUILD with the partition option. This example rebuilds partition 12. Starting with SQL Server 2016, we recommend replacing REBUILD with REORGANIZE.

ALTER INDEX cci_fact3   
ON fact3  
REBUILD PARTITION = 12;  
  

F. Change a clustered columstore index to use archival compression

Does not apply to: SQL Server 2012

You can choose to reduce the size of a clustered columnstore index even further by using the COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE data compression option. This is practical for older data that you want to keep on cheaper storage. We recommend only using this on data that is not accessed often since decomrpess is slower than with the normal COLUMNSTORE compression.

The following example rebuilds a clustered columnstore index to use archival compression, and then shows how to remove the archival compression. The final result will use only columnstore compression.

--Prepare the example by creating a table with a clustered columnstore index.  
CREATE TABLE SimpleTable (  
    ProductKey [int] NOT NULL,   
    OrderDateKey [int] NOT NULL,   
    DueDateKey [int] NOT NULL,   
    ShipDateKey [int] NOT NULL  
);  
  
CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX cci_SimpleTable ON SimpleTable (ProductKey);  
  
CREATE CLUSTERED COLUMNSTORE INDEX cci_SimpleTable  
ON SimpleTable  
WITH ( DROP_EXISTING = ON );  
  
--Compress the table further by using archival compression.  
ALTER INDEX cci_SimpleTable ON SimpleTable  
REBUILD  
WITH ( DATA_COMPRESSION = COLUMNSTORE_ARCHIVE );  
  
--Remove the archive compression and only use columnstore compression.  
ALTER INDEX cci_SimpleTable ON SimpleTable  
REBUILD  
WITH ( DATA_COMPRESSION = COLUMNSTORE );  
GO  
  

A. Rebuilding an index

The following example rebuilds a single index on the Employee table in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

ALTER INDEX PK_Employee_EmployeeID ON HumanResources.Employee  
REBUILD;  
  

B. Rebuilding all indexes on a table and specifying options

The following example specifies the keyword ALL. This rebuilds all indexes associated with the table Production.Product in the AdventureWorks2012 database. Three options are specified.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
ALTER INDEX ALL ON Production.Product  
REBUILD WITH (FILLFACTOR = 80, SORT_IN_TEMPDB = ON,  
              STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = ON);  
  

The following example adds the ONLINE option including the low priority lock option, and adds the row compression option.

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
ALTER INDEX ALL ON Production.Product  
REBUILD WITH   
(  
    FILLFACTOR = 80,   
    SORT_IN_TEMPDB = ON,  
    STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = ON,  
    ONLINE = ON ( WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY ( MAX_DURATION = 4 MINUTES, ABORT_AFTER_WAIT = BLOCKERS ) ),   
    DATA_COMPRESSION = ROW  
)  
;  

D. Reorganizing an index with LOB compaction

The following example reorganizes a single clustered index in the AdventureWorks2012 database. Because the index contains a LOB data type in the leaf level, the statement also compacts all pages that contain the large object data. Note that specifying the WITH (LOB_COMPACTION) option is not required because the default value is ON.

ALTER INDEX PK_ProductPhoto_ProductPhotoID ON Production.ProductPhoto  
REORGANIZE ;  
  

E. Setting options on an index

The following example sets several options on the index AK_SalesOrderHeader_SalesOrderNumber in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

Applies to: SQL Server 2008 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
ALTER INDEX AK_SalesOrderHeader_SalesOrderNumber ON  
    Sales.SalesOrderHeader  
SET (  
    STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = ON,  
    IGNORE_DUP_KEY = ON,  
    ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = ON  
    ) ;  
GO  
  

F. Disabling an index

The following example disables a nonclustered index on the Employee table in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

ALTER INDEX IX_Employee_ManagerID ON HumanResources.Employee  
DISABLE ;  
  

G. Disabling constraints

The following example disables a PRIMARY KEY constraint by disabling the PRIMARY KEY index in the AdventureWorks2012 database. The FOREIGN KEY constraint on the underlying table is automatically disabled and warning message is displayed.

ALTER INDEX PK_Department_DepartmentID ON HumanResources.Department  
DISABLE ;  

The result set returns this warning message.

Warning: Foreign key 'FK_EmployeeDepartmentHistory_Department_DepartmentID'

on table 'EmployeeDepartmentHistory' referencing table 'Department'

was disabled as a result of disabling the index 'PK_Department_DepartmentID'.

H. Enabling constraints

The following example enables the PRIMARY KEY and FOREIGN KEY constraints that were disabled in Example F.

The PRIMARY KEY constraint is enabled by rebuilding the PRIMARY KEY index.

ALTER INDEX PK_Department_DepartmentID ON HumanResources.Department  
REBUILD ;  
  

The FOREIGN KEY constraint is then enabled.

ALTER TABLE HumanResources.EmployeeDepartmentHistory  
CHECK CONSTRAINT FK_EmployeeDepartmentHistory_Department_DepartmentID;  
GO  
  

I. Rebuilding a partitioned index

The following example rebuilds a single partition, partition number 5, of the partitioned index IX_TransactionHistory_TransactionDate in the AdventureWorks2012 database. Partition 5 is rebuilt online and the 10 minutes wait time for the low priority lock applies separately to every lock acquired by index rebuild operation. If during this time the lock cannot be obtained to complete index rebuild, the rebuild operation statement is aborted.

Applies to: SQL Server 2014 through SQL Server 2016, SQL Database V12.
-- Verify the partitioned indexes.  
SELECT *  
FROM sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats (DB_ID(),OBJECT_ID(N'Production.TransactionHistory'), NULL , NULL, NULL);  
GO  
--Rebuild only partition 5.  
ALTER INDEX IX_TransactionHistory_TransactionDate  
ON Production.TransactionHistory  
REBUILD Partition = 5   
   WITH ( ONLINE = ON ( WAIT_AT_LOW_PRIORITY (MAX_DURATION = 10 minutes, ABORT_AFTER_WAIT = SELF )))  
;  
GO  

J. Changing the compression setting of an index

The following example rebuilds an index on a nonpartitioned rowstore table.

ALTER INDEX IX_INDEX1   
ON T1  
REBUILD   
WITH ( DATA_COMPRESSION = PAGE );  
GO  

For additional data compression examples, see Data Compression.

K. Basic Syntax

ALTER INDEX index1 ON table1 REBUILD;

ALTER INDEX ALL ON table1 REBUILD;

ALTER INDEX ALL ON dbo.table1 REBUILD;

CREATE INDEX (Transact-SQL)
CREATE SPATIAL INDEX (Transact-SQL)
CREATE XML INDEX (Transact-SQL)
DROP INDEX (Transact-SQL)
Disable Indexes and Constraints
XML Indexes (SQL Server)
Perform Index Operations Online
Reorganize and Rebuild Indexes
sys.dm_db_index_physical_stats (Transact-SQL)
EVENTDATA (Transact-SQL)

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