PERMISSIONS (Transact-SQL)

PERMISSIONS (Transact-SQL)

 

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO:yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabasenoAzure SQL Data Warehouse noParallel Data Warehouse

Returns a value containing a bitmap that indicates the statement, object, or column permissions of the current user.

Important This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature. Use fn_my_permissions and Has_Perms_By_Name instead. Continued use of the PERMISSIONS function may result in slower performance.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

  
PERMISSIONS ( [ objectid [ , 'column' ] ] )  

objectid
Is the ID of a securable. If objectid is not specified, the bitmap value contains statement permissions for the current user; otherwise, the bitmap contains permissions on the securable for the current user. The securable specified must be in the current database. Use the OBJECT_ID function to determine the objectid value.

' column '
Is the optional name of a column for which permission information is being returned. The column must be a valid column name in the table specified by objectid.

int

PERMISSIONS can be used to determine whether the current user has the permissions required to execute a statement or to GRANT a permission to another user.

The permissions information returned is a 32-bit bitmap.

The lower 16 bits reflect permissions granted to the user, and also permissions that are applied to Windows groups or and fixed server roles of which the current user is a member. For example, a returned value of 66 (hex value 0x42), when no objectid is specified, indicates that the user has permission to execute the CREATE TABLE (decimal value 2) and BACKUP DATABASE (decimal value 64) statements.

The upper 16 bits reflect the permissions that the user can GRANT to other users. The upper 16 bits are interpreted exactly as those for the lower 16 bits described in the following tables, except they are shifted to the left by 16 bits (multiplied by 65536). For example, 0x8 (decimal value 8) is the bit that indicates INSERT permission when an objectid is specified. Whereas, 0x80000 (decimal value 524288) indicates the ability to GRANT INSERT permission, because 524288 = 8 x 65536.

Because of membership in roles, a user that does not have permission to execute a statement may still be able to grant that permission to another user.

The following table shows the bits that are used for statement permissions (objectid is not specified).

Bit (dec)Bit (hex)Statement permission
10x1CREATE DATABASE (master database only)
20x2CREATE TABLE
40x4CREATE PROCEDURE
80x8CREATE VIEW
160x10CREATE RULE
320x20CREATE DEFAULT
640x40BACKUP DATABASE
1280x80BACKUP LOG
2560x100Reserved

The following table shows the bits used for object permissions that are returned when only objectid is specified.

Bit (dec)Bit (hex)Statement permission
10x1SELECT ALL
20x2UPDATE ALL
40x4REFERENCES ALL
80x8INSERT
160x10DELETE
320x20EXECUTE (procedures only)
40960x1000SELECT ANY (at least one column)
81920x2000UPDATE ANY
163840x4000REFERENCES ANY

The following table shows the bits used for column-level object permissions that are returned when both objectid and column are specified.

Bit (dec)Bit (hex)Statement permission
10x1SELECT
20x2UPDATE
40x4REFERENCES

A NULL is returned when a specified parameter is NULL or not valid (for example, an objectid or column that does not exist). The bit values for permissions that do not apply (for example EXECUTE permission, bit 0x20, for a table) are undefined.

Use the bitwise AND (&) operator to determine each bit set in the bitmap that is returned by the PERMISSIONS function.

The sp_helprotect system stored procedure can also be used to return a list of permissions for a user in the current database.

A. Using the PERMISSIONS function with statement permissions

The following example determines whether the current user can execute the CREATE TABLE statement.

IF PERMISSIONS()&2=2  
   CREATE TABLE test_table (col1 INT)  
ELSE  
   PRINT 'ERROR: The current user cannot create a table.';  

B. Using the PERMISSIONS function with object permissions

The following example determines whether the current user can insert a row of data into the Address table in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

IF PERMISSIONS(OBJECT_ID('AdventureWorks2012.Person.Address','U'))&8=8   
   PRINT 'The current user can insert data into Person.Address.'  
ELSE  
   PRINT 'ERROR: The current user cannot insert data into Person.Address.';  

C. Using the PERMISSIONS function with grantable permissions

The following example determines whether the current user can grant the INSERT permission on the Address table in the AdventureWorks2012 database to another user.

IF PERMISSIONS(OBJECT_ID('AdventureWorks2012.Person.Address','U'))&0x80000=0x80000  
   PRINT 'INSERT on Person.Address is grantable.'  
ELSE  
   PRINT 'You may not GRANT INSERT permissions on Person.Address.';  

DENY (Transact-SQL)
GRANT (Transact-SQL)
OBJECT_ID (Transact-SQL)
REVOKE (Transact-SQL)
sp_helprotect (Transact-SQL)
System Functions (Transact-SQL)

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