CDialog Class

 

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The base class used for displaying dialog boxes on the screen.

class CDialog : public CWnd  

Public Constructors

NameDescription
CDialog::CDialogConstructs a CDialog object.

Public Methods

NameDescription
CDialog::CreateInitializes the CDialog object. Creates a modeless dialog box and attaches it to the CDialog object.
CDialog::CreateIndirectCreates a modeless dialog box from a dialog-box template in memory (not resource-based).
CDialog::DoModalCalls a modal dialog box and returns when done.
CDialog::EndDialogCloses a modal dialog box.
CDialog::GetDefIDGets the ID of the default pushbutton control for a dialog box.
CDialog::GotoDlgCtrlMoves the focus to a specified dialog-box control in the dialog box.
CDialog::InitModalIndirectCreates a modal dialog box from a dialog-box template in memory (not resource-based). The parameters are stored until the function DoModal is called.
CDialog::MapDialogRectConverts the dialog-box units of a rectangle to screen units.
CDialog::NextDlgCtrlMoves the focus to the next dialog-box control in the dialog box.
CDialog::OnInitDialogOverride to augment dialog-box initialization.
CDialog::OnSetFontOverride to specify the font that a dialog-box control is to use when it draws text.
CDialog::PrevDlgCtrlMoves the focus to the previous dialog-box control in the dialog box.
CDialog::SetDefIDChanges the default pushbutton control for a dialog box to a specified pushbutton.
CDialog::SetHelpIDSets a context-sensitive help ID for the dialog box.

Protected Methods

NameDescription
CDialog::OnCancelOverride to perform the Cancel button or ESC key action. The default closes the dialog box and DoModal returns IDCANCEL.
CDialog::OnOKOverride to perform the OK button action in a modal dialog box. The default closes the dialog box and DoModal returns IDOK.

Dialog boxes are of two types: modal and modeless. A modal dialog box must be closed by the user before the application continues. A modeless dialog box allows the user to display the dialog box and return to another task without canceling or removing the dialog box.

A CDialog object is a combination of a dialog template and a CDialog-derived class. Use the dialog editor to create the dialog template and store it in a resource, then use the Add Class wizard to create a class derived from CDialog.

A dialog box, like any other window, receives messages from Windows. In a dialog box, you are particularly interested in handling notification messages from the dialog box's controls since that is how the user interacts with your dialog box. Use the Properties window to select which messages you wish to handle and it will add the appropriate message-map entries and message-handler member functions to the class for you. You only need to write application-specific code in the handler member functions.

If you prefer, you can always write message-map entries and member functions manually.

In all but the most trivial dialog box, you add member variables to your derived dialog class to store data entered in the dialog box's controls by the user or to display data for the user. You can use the Add Variable wizard to create member variables and associate them with controls. At the same time, you choose a variable type and permissible range of values for each variable. The code wizard adds the member variables to your derived dialog class.

A data map is generated to automatically handle the exchange of data between the member variables and the dialog box's controls. The data map provides functions that initialize the controls in the dialog box with the proper values, retrieve the data, and validate the data.

To create a modal dialog box, construct an object on the stack using the constructor for your derived dialog class and then call DoModal to create the dialog window and its controls. If you wish to create a modeless dialog, call Create in the constructor of your dialog class.

You can also create a template in memory by using a DLGTEMPLATE data structure as described in the Windows SDK. After you construct a CDialog object, call CreateIndirect to create a modeless dialog box, or call InitModalIndirect and DoModal to create a modal dialog box.

The exchange and validation data map is written in an override of CWnd::DoDataExchange that is added to your new dialog class. See the DoDataExchange member function in CWnd for more on the exchange and validation functionality.

Both the programmer and the framework call DoDataExchange indirectly through a call to CWnd::UpdateData.

The framework calls UpdateData when the user clicks the OK button to close a modal dialog box. (The data is not retrieved if the Cancel button is clicked.) The default implementation of OnInitDialog also calls UpdateData to set the initial values of the controls. You typically override OnInitDialog to further initialize controls. OnInitDialog is called after all the dialog controls are created and just before the dialog box is displayed.

You can call CWnd::UpdateData at any time during the execution of a modal or modeless dialog box.

If you develop a dialog box by hand, you add the necessary member variables to the derived dialog-box class yourself, and you add member functions to set or get these values.

A modal dialog box closes automatically when the user presses the OK or Cancel buttons or when your code calls the EndDialog member function.

When you implement a modeless dialog box, always override the OnCancel member function and call DestroyWindow from within it. Don't call the base class CDialog::OnCancel, because it calls EndDialog, which will make the dialog box invisible but will not destroy it. You should also override PostNcDestroy for modeless dialog boxes in order to delete this, since modeless dialog boxes are usually allocated with new. Modal dialog boxes are usually constructed on the frame and do not need PostNcDestroy cleanup.

For more information on CDialog, see:

  • Dialog Boxes

  • Knowledge Base article Q262954 : HOWTO: Create a Resizeable Dialog Box with Scroll Bars

CObject

CCmdTarget

CWnd

CDialog

Header: afxwin.h

To construct a resource-based modal dialog box, call either public form of the constructor.

explicit CDialog(
    LPCTSTR lpszTemplateName,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL);

 
explicit CDialog(
    UINT nIDTemplate,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL);  
  
CDialog();

Parameters

lpszTemplateName
Contains a null-terminated string that is the name of a dialog-box template resource.

nIDTemplate
Contains the ID number of a dialog-box template resource.

pParentWnd
Points to the parent or owner window object (of type CWnd) to which the dialog object belongs. If it is NULL, the dialog object's parent window is set to the main application window.

Remarks

One form of the constructor provides access to the dialog resource by template name. The other constructor provides access by template ID number, usually with an IDD_ prefix (for example, IDD_DIALOG1).

To construct a modal dialog box from a template in memory, first invoke the parameterless, protected constructor and then call InitModalIndirect.

After you construct a modal dialog box with one of the above methods, call DoModal.

To construct a modeless dialog box, use the protected form of the CDialog constructor. The constructor is protected because you must derive your own dialog-box class to implement a modeless dialog box. Construction of a modeless dialog box is a two-step process. First call the constructor; then call the Create member function to create a resource-based dialog box, or call CreateIndirect to create the dialog box from a template in memory.

Call Create to create a modeless dialog box using a dialog-box template from a resource.

virtual BOOL Create(
    LPCTSTR lpszTemplateName,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL);

 
virtual BOOL Create(
    UINT nIDTemplate,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL);

Parameters

lpszTemplateName
Contains a null-terminated string that is the name of a dialog-box template resource.

pParentWnd
Points to the parent window object (of type CWnd) to which the dialog object belongs. If it is NULL, the dialog object's parent window is set to the main application window.

nIDTemplate
Contains the ID number of a dialog-box template resource.

Return Value

Both forms return nonzero if dialog-box creation and initialization were successful; otherwise 0.

Remarks

You can put the call to Create inside the constructor or call it after the constructor is invoked.

Two forms of the Create member function are provided for access to the dialog-box template resource by either template name or template ID number (for example, IDD_DIALOG1).

For either form, pass a pointer to the parent window object. If pParentWnd is NULL, the dialog box will be created with its parent or owner window set to the main application window.

The Create member function returns immediately after it creates the dialog box.

Use the WS_VISIBLE style in the dialog-box template if the dialog box should appear when the parent window is created. Otherwise, you must call ShowWindow. For further dialog-box styles and their application, see the DLGTEMPLATE structure in the Windows SDK and Window Styles in the MFC Reference.

Use the CWnd::DestroyWindow function to destroy a dialog box created by the Create function.

Example

void CMyDialog::OnMenuShowSimpleDialog()
{
   //m_pSimpleDialog initialized to NULL in the constructor of CMyDialog class
   m_pSimpleDlg = new CSimpleDlg();
   //Check if new succeeded and we got a valid pointer to a dialog object
   if(m_pSimpleDlg != NULL)
   {
      BOOL ret = m_pSimpleDlg->Create(IDD_SIMPLEDIALOG, this);

      if(!ret)   //Create failed.
         AfxMessageBox(_T("Error creating Dialog"));

      m_pSimpleDlg->ShowWindow(SW_SHOW);
   }
   else
   {
      AfxMessageBox(_T("Error Creating Dialog Object"));
   }
}

Call this member function to create a modeless dialog box from a dialog-box template in memory.

virtual BOOL CreateIndirect(
    LPCDLGTEMPLATE lpDialogTemplate,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL,  
    void* lpDialogInit = NULL);

 
virtual BOOL CreateIndirect(
    HGLOBAL hDialogTemplate,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL);

Parameters

lpDialogTemplate
Points to memory that contains a dialog-box template used to create the dialog box. This template is in the form of a DLGTEMPLATE structure and control information, as described in the Windows SDK.

pParentWnd
Points to the dialog object's parent window object (of type CWnd). If it is NULL, the dialog object's parent window is set to the main application window.

lpDialogInit
Points to a DLGINIT resource.

hDialogTemplate
Contains a handle to global memory containing a dialog-box template. This template is in the form of a DLGTEMPLATE structure and data for each control in the dialog box.

Return Value

Nonzero if the dialog box was created and initialized successfully; otherwise 0.

Remarks

The CreateIndirect member function returns immediately after it creates the dialog box.

Use the WS_VISIBLE style in the dialog-box template if the dialog box should appear when the parent window is created. Otherwise, you must call ShowWindow to cause it to appear. For more information on how you can specify other dialog-box styles in the template, see the DLGTEMPLATE structure in the Windows SDK.

Use the CWnd::DestroyWindow function to destroy a dialog box created by the CreateIndirect function.

Dialog boxes that contain ActiveX controls require additional information provided in a DLGINIT resource. For more information, see Knowledge Base article Q231591, " HOWTO: Use a Dialog Template to Create a MFC Dialog with an ActiveX Control." Knowledge Base articles are available in the MSDN Library Visual Studio documentation or at http://support.microsoft.com.

Call this member function to invoke the modal dialog box and return the dialog-box result when done.

virtual INT_PTR DoModal();

Return Value

An int value that specifies the value of the nResult parameter that was passed to the CDialog::EndDialog member function, which is used to close the dialog box. The return value is –1 if the function could not create the dialog box, or IDABORT if some other error occurred, in which case the Output window will contain error information from GetLastError.

Remarks

This member function handles all interaction with the user while the dialog box is active. This is what makes the dialog box modal; that is, the user cannot interact with other windows until the dialog box is closed.

If the user clicks one of the pushbuttons in the dialog box, such as OK or Cancel, a message-handler member function, such as OnOK or OnCancel, is called to attempt to close the dialog box. The default OnOK member function will validate and update the dialog-box data and close the dialog box with result IDOK, and the default OnCancel member function will close the dialog box with result IDCANCEL without validating or updating the dialog-box data. You can override these message-handler functions to alter their behavior.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

PreTranslateMessage is now called for modal dialog box message processing.

Example

void CMyDialog::OnMenuShowAboutDialog()
{
   // Construct the dialog box passing the 
   // ID of the dialog template resource
   CDialog aboutDlg(IDD_ABOUTBOX);

   // Create and show the dialog box
   INT_PTR nRet = -1;
   nRet = aboutDlg.DoModal();

   // Handle the return value from DoModal
   switch (nRet)
   {
      case -1: 
         AfxMessageBox(_T("Dialog box could not be created!"));
         break;
      case IDABORT:
         // Do something
         break;
      case IDOK:
         // Do something
         break;
      case IDCANCEL:
         // Do something
         break;
      default:
         // Do something
         break;
   };
}

Call this member function to terminate a modal dialog box.

void EndDialog(int nResult);

Parameters

nResult
Contains the value to be returned from the dialog box to the caller of DoModal.

Remarks

This member function returns nResult as the return value of DoModal. You must use the EndDialog function to complete processing whenever a modal dialog box is created.

You can call EndDialog at any time, even in OnInitDialog, in which case you should close the dialog box before it is shown or before the input focus is set.

EndDialog does not close the dialog box immediately. Instead, it sets a flag that directs the dialog box to close as soon as the current message handler returns.

Example

void CMyDialog::OnMenuShowSimpleModal()
{
   CSimpleDlg myDlg;
   INT_PTR nRet = myDlg.DoModal();

   if (nRet == IDOK || nRet == 5)
      AfxMessageBox(_T("Dialog closed successfully"));
}

void CSimpleDlg::OnRButtonUp(UINT nFlags, CPoint point)
{
   UNREFERENCED_PARAMETER(nFlags);
   // Do something

   int nRet = point.x; // Just any value would do!
   EndDialog(nRet); // This value is returned by DoModal!

   // Do something

   return; // Dialog closed and DoModal returns only here!
}

Call the GetDefID member function to get the ID of the default pushbutton control for a dialog box.

DWORD GetDefID() const;  

Return Value

A 32-bit value ( DWORD). If the default pushbutton has an ID value, the high-order word contains DC_HASDEFID and the low-order word contains the ID value. If the default pushbutton does not have an ID value, the return value is 0.

Remarks

This is usually an OK button.

Moves the focus to the specified control in the dialog box.

void GotoDlgCtrl(CWnd* pWndCtrl);

Parameters

pWndCtrl
Identifies the window (control) that is to receive the focus.

Remarks

To get a pointer to the control (child window) to pass as pWndCtrl, call the CWnd::GetDlgItem member function, which returns a pointer to a CWnd object.

Example

See the example for CWnd::GetDlgItem.

Call this member function to initialize a modal dialog object using a dialog-box template that you construct in memory.

BOOL InitModalIndirect(
    LPCDLGTEMPLATE lpDialogTemplate,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL,  
    void* lpDialogInit = NULL);

 
    BOOL InitModalIndirect(
    HGLOBAL hDialogTemplate,  
    CWnd* pParentWnd = NULL);

Parameters

lpDialogTemplate
Points to memory that contains a dialog-box template used to create the dialog box. This template is in the form of a DLGTEMPLATE structure and control information, as described in the Windows SDK.

hDialogTemplate
Contains a handle to global memory containing a dialog-box template. This template is in the form of a DLGTEMPLATE structure and data for each control in the dialog box.

pParentWnd
Points to the parent or owner window object (of type CWnd) to which the dialog object belongs. If it is NULL, the dialog object's parent window is set to the main application window.

lpDialogInit
Points to a DLGINIT resource.

Return Value

Nonzero if the dialog object was created and initialized successfully; otherwise 0.

Remarks

To create a modal dialog box indirectly, first allocate a global block of memory and fill it with the dialog box template. Then call the empty CDialog constructor to construct the dialog-box object. Next, call InitModalIndirect to store your handle to the in-memory dialog-box template. The Windows dialog box is created and displayed later, when the DoModal member function is called.

Dialog boxes that contain ActiveX controls require additional information provided in a DLGINIT resource. For more information, see Knowledge Base article Q231591, " HOWTO: Use a Dialog Template to Create a MFC Dialog with an ActiveX Control." Knowledge Base articles are available in the MSDN Library Visual Studio documentation or at http://support.microsoft.com.

Call to convert the dialog-box units of a rectangle to screen units.

void MapDialogRect(LPRECT lpRect) const;  

Parameters

lpRect
Points to a RECT structure or CRect object that contains the dialog-box coordinates to be converted.

Remarks

Dialog-box units are stated in terms of the current dialog-box base unit derived from the average width and height of characters in the font used for dialog-box text. One horizontal unit is one-fourth of the dialog-box base-width unit, and one vertical unit is one-eighth of the dialog-box base height unit.

The GetDialogBaseUnits Windows function returns size information for the system font, but you can specify a different font for each dialog box if you use the DS_SETFONT style in the resource-definition file. The MapDialogRect Windows function uses the appropriate font for this dialog box.

The MapDialogRect member function replaces the dialog-box units in lpRect with screen units (pixels) so that the rectangle can be used to create a dialog box or position a control within a box.

Moves the focus to the next control in the dialog box.

void NextDlgCtrl() const;  

Remarks

If the focus is at the last control in the dialog box, it moves to the first control.

The framework calls this method when the user clicks Cancel or presses the ESC key in a modal or modeless dialog box.

virtual void OnCancel();

Remarks

Override this method to perform actions (such as restoring old data) when a user closes the dialog box by clicking Cancel or hitting the ESC key. The default closes a modal dialog box by calling EndDialog and causing DoModal to return IDCANCEL.

If you implement the Cancel button in a modeless dialog box, you must override the OnCancel method and call DestroyWindow inside it. Do not call the base-class method, because it calls EndDialog, which will make the dialog box invisible but not destroy it.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

You cannot override this method when you use a CFileDialog object in a program that is compiled under Windows XP. For more information about CFileDialog, see CFileDialog Class.

Example

void CSimpleDlg::OnCancel()
{
   // TODO: Add extra cleanup here

   // Ensure that you reset all the values back to the
   // ones before modification. This handler is called
   // when the user doesn't want to save the changes.

   if (AfxMessageBox(_T("Are you sure you want to abort the changes?"), 
      MB_YESNO) == IDNO)
   {
      // Give the user a chance if he has unknowingly hit the
      // Cancel button. If he says No, return. Don't reset. If
      // Yes, go ahead and reset the values and close the dialog.
      return; 
   }

   m_nMyValue = m_nPrevValue;
   m_pMyString = NULL; 

   CDialog::OnCancel();
}

This method is called in response to the WM_INITDIALOG message.

virtual BOOL OnInitDialog();

Return Value

Specifies whether the application has set the input focus to one of the controls in the dialog box. If OnInitDialog returns nonzero, Windows sets the input focus to the default location, the first control in the dialog box. The application can return 0 only if it has explicitly set the input focus to one of the controls in the dialog box.

Remarks

Windows sends the WM_INITDIALOG message to the dialog box during the Create, CreateIndirect, or DoModal calls, which occur immediately before the dialog box is displayed.

Override this method if you want to perform special processing when the dialog box is initialized. In the overridden version, first call the base class OnInitDialog but ignore its return value. You will typically return TRUE from your overridden method.

Windows calls the OnInitDialog function by using the standard global dialog-box procedure common to all Microsoft Foundation Class Library dialog boxes. It does not call this function through your message map, and therefore you do not need a message map entry for this method.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

You cannot override this method when you use a CFileDialog object in a program that is compiled under Windows Vista. For more information about changes to CFileDialog under Windows Vista see CFileDialog Class.

Example

BOOL CSimpleDlg::OnInitDialog()
{
   CDialog::OnInitDialog();

   // TODO: Add extra initialization here
   m_cMyEdit.SetWindowText(_T("My Name")); // Initialize control values
   m_cMyList.ShowWindow(SW_HIDE);      // Show or hide a control, etc.

   return TRUE;  // return TRUE unless you set the focus to a control
   // EXCEPTION: OCX Property Pages should return FALSE
}

Called when the user clicks the OK button (the button with an ID of IDOK).

virtual void OnOK();

Remarks

Override this method to perform actions when the OK button is activated. If the dialog box includes automatic data validation and exchange, the default implementation of this method validates the dialog box data and updates the appropriate variables in your application.

If you implement the OK button in a modeless dialog box, you must override the OnOK method and call DestroyWindow inside it. Do not call the base-class method, because it calls EndDialog which makes the dialog box invisible but does not destroy it.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

You cannot override this method when you use a CFileDialog object in a program that is compiled under Windows XP. For more information about CFileDialog, see CFileDialog Class.

Example

void CSimpleDlg::OnOK()
{
   // TODO: Add extra validation here

   // Ensure that your UI got the necessary input 
   // from the user before closing the dialog. The 
   // default OnOK will close this.
   if (m_nMyValue == 0) // Is a particular field still empty?
   {	
      // Inform the user that he can't close the dialog without
      // entering the necessary values and don't close the 
      // dialog.
      AfxMessageBox(_T("Please enter a value for MyValue"));
      return; 
   }

   CDialog::OnOK(); // This will close the dialog and DoModal will return.
}

Specifies the font a dialog-box control will use when drawing text.

Virtual void OnSetFont(CFont* pFont);

Parameters

[in] pFont
Specifies a pointer to the font that will be used as the default font for all controls in this dialog box.

Remarks

The dialog box will use the specified font as the default for all its controls.

The dialog editor typically sets the dialog-box font as part of the dialog-box template resource.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

You cannot override this method when you use a CFileDialog object in a program that is compiled under Windows Vista. For more information about changes to CFileDialog under Windows Vista see CFileDialog Class.

Sets the focus to the previous control in the dialog box.

void PrevDlgCtrl() const;  

Remarks

If the focus is at the first control in the dialog box, it moves to the last control in the box.

Changes the default pushbutton control for a dialog box.

void SetDefID(UINT nID);

Parameters

nID
Specifies the ID of the pushbutton control that will become the default.

Sets a context-sensitive help ID for the dialog box.

void SetHelpID(UINT nIDR);

Parameters

nIDR
Specifies the context-sensitive help ID.

MFC Sample DLGCBR32
MFC Sample DLGTEMPL
CWnd Class
Hierarchy Chart

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