<exception> functions

Visual Studio 2015
 

For the latest documentation on Visual Studio 2017 RC, see Visual Studio 2017 RC Documentation.

current_exceptionget_terminateget_unexpected
make_exception_ptrrethrow_exceptionset_terminate
set_unexpectedterminateuncaught_exception
unexpected

Obtains a smart pointer to the current exception.

exception_ptr current_exception();

Return Value

An exception_ptr object pointing to the current exception.

Remarks

Call the current_exception function in a catch block. If an exception is in flight and the catch block can catch the exception, the current_exception function returns an exception_ptr object that references the exception. Otherwise, the function returns a null exception_ptr object.

The current_exception function captures the exception that is in flight regardless of whether the catch statement specifies an exception-declaration statement.

The destructor for the current exception is called at the end of the catch block if you do not rethrow the exception. However, even if you call the current_exception function in the destructor, the function returns an exception_ptr object that references the current exception.

Successive calls to the current_exception function return exception_ptr objects that refer to different copies of the current exception. Consequently, the objects compare as unequal because they refer to different copies, even though the copies have the same binary value.

Creates an exception_ptr object that holds a copy of an exception.

template <class E>  
exception_ptr make_exception_ptr(E Except);

Parameters

Except
The class with the exception to copy. Usually, you specify an exception class object as the argument to the make_exception_ptr function, although any class object can be the argument.

Return Value

An exception_ptr object pointing to a copy of the current exception for Except.

Remarks

Calling the make_exception_ptr function is equivalent to throwing a C++ exception, catching it in a catch block, and then calling the current_exception function to return an exception_ptr object that references the exception. The Microsoft implementation of the make_exception_ptr function is more efficient than throwing and then catching an exception.

An application typically does not require the make_exception_ptr function, and we discourage its use.

Throws an exception passed as a parameter.

void rethrow_exception(exception_ptr P);

Parameters

P
The caught exception to re-throw. If P is a null exception_ptr, the function throws std::bad_exception.

Remarks

After you store a caught exception in an exception_ptr object, the primary thread can process the object. In your primary thread, call the rethrow_exception function together with the exception_ptr object as its argument. The rethrow_exception function extracts the exception from the exception_ptr object and then throws the exception in the context of the primary thread.

Obtains the current terminate_handler function.

terminate_handler get_terminate();

Establishes a new terminate_handler to be called at the termination of the program.

terminate_handler set_terminate(terminate_handler fnew) throw();

Parameters

fnew
The function to be called at termination.

Return Value

The address of the previous function that used to be called at termination.

Remarks

The function establishes a new terminate_handler as the function * fnew. Thus, fnew must not be a null pointer. The function returns the address of the previous terminate handler.

Example

// exception_set_terminate.cpp  
// compile with: /EHsc  
#include <exception>  
#include <iostream>  
  
using namespace std;  
  
void termfunction()  
{  
    cout << "My terminate function called." << endl;  
    abort();  
}  
  
int main()  
{  
    terminate_handler oldHandler = set_terminate(termfunction);  
  
    // Throwing an unhandled exception would also terminate the program  
    // or we could explicitly call terminate();  
  
    //throw bad_alloc();  
    terminate();  
}  
  

Obtains the current unexpected_handler function.

unexpected_handler get_unexpected();

Establishes a new unexpected_handler to be when an unexpected exception is encountered.

unexpected_handler set_unexpected(unexpected_handler fnew) throw();

Parameters

fnew
The function to be called when an unexpected exception is encountered.

Return Value

The address of the previous unexpected_handler.

Remarks

fnew must not be a null pointer.

The C++ Standard requires that unexpected is called when a function throws an exception that is not on its throw list. The current implementation does not support this. The following example calls unexpected directly, which then calls the unexpected_handler.

Example

// exception_set_unexpected.cpp  
// compile with: /EHsc  
#include <exception>  
#include <iostream>  
  
using namespace std;  
  
void uefunction()  
{  
    cout << "My unhandled exception function called." << endl;  
    terminate(); // this is what unexpected() calls by default  
}  
  
int main()  
{  
    unexpected_handler oldHandler = set_unexpected(uefunction);  
  
    unexpected(); // library function to force calling the   
                  // current unexpected handler  
}  
  

Calls a terminate handler.

void terminate();

Remarks

The function calls a terminate handler, a function of type void. If terminate is called directly by the program, the terminate handler is the one most recently set by a call to set_terminate. If terminate is called for any of several other reasons during evaluation of a throw expression, the terminate handler is the one in effect immediately after evaluating the throw expression.

A terminate handler may not return to its caller. At program startup, the terminate handler is a function that calls abort.

Example

See set_unexpected for an example of the use of terminate.

Returns true only if a thrown exception is being currently processed.

bool uncaught_exception();

Return Value

Returns true after completing evaluation of a throw expression and before completing initialization of the exception declaration in the matching handler or calling unexpected as a result of the throw expression. In particular, uncaught_exception will return true when called from a destructor that is being invoked during an exception unwind. On devices, uncaught_exception is only supported on Windows CE 5.00 and higher versions, including Windows Mobile 2005 platforms.

Example

// exception_uncaught_exception.cpp  
// compile with: /EHsc  
#include <exception>  
#include <iostream>  
#include <string>  
  
class Test   
{  
public:  
   Test( std::string msg ) : m_msg( msg )   
   {  
      std::cout << "In Test::Test(\"" << m_msg << "\")" << std::endl;  
   }  
   ~Test( )   
   {  
      std::cout << "In Test::~Test(\"" << m_msg << "\")" << std::endl  
         << "        std::uncaught_exception( ) = "  
         << std::uncaught_exception( )  
         << std::endl;  
   }  
private:  
    std::string m_msg;  
};  
  
// uncaught_exception will be true in the destructor   
// for the object created inside the try block because   
// the destructor is being called as part of the unwind.  
  
int main( void )  
   {  
      Test t1( "outside try block" );  
      try   
      {  
         Test t2( "inside try block" );  
         throw 1;  
      }  
      catch (...) {  
   }  
}  

In Test::Test("outside try block")  
In Test::Test("inside try block")  
In Test::~Test("inside try block")  
        std::uncaught_exception( ) = 1  
In Test::~Test("outside try block")  
        std::uncaught_exception( ) = 0  

Calls the unexpected handler.

void unexpected();

Remarks

The C++ Standard requires that unexpected is called when a function throws an exception that is not on its throw list. The current implementation does not support this. The example calls unexpected directly, which calls the unexpected handler.

The function calls an unexpected handler, a function of type void. If unexpected is called directly by the program, the unexpected handler is the one most recently set by a call to set_unexpected.

An unexpected handler may not return to its caller. It may terminate execution by:

  • Throwing an object of a type listed in the exception specification or an object of any type if the unexpected handler is called directly by the program.

  • Throwing an object of type bad_exception.

  • Calling terminate, abort or exit( int).

At program startup, the unexpected handler is a function that calls terminate.

Example

See set_unexpected for an example of the use of unexpected.

<exception>

Show: