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Boolean Structure

 

Represents a Boolean (true or false) value.

Namespace:   System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

<SerializableAttribute>
<ComVisibleAttribute(True)>
Public Structure Boolean
	Implements IComparable, IConvertible, IComparable(Of Boolean),
	IEquatable(Of Boolean)

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubmethodCompareTo(Boolean)

Compares this instance to a specified Boolean object and returns an integer that indicates their relationship to one another.

System_CAPS_pubmethodCompareTo(Object)

Compares this instance to a specified object and returns an integer that indicates their relationship to one another.

System_CAPS_pubmethodEquals(Boolean)

Returns a value indicating whether this instance is equal to a specified Boolean object.

System_CAPS_pubmethodEquals(Object)

Returns a value indicating whether this instance is equal to a specified object.(Overrides ValueType.Equals(Object).)

System_CAPS_pubmethodGetHashCode()

Returns the hash code for this instance.(Overrides ValueType.GetHashCode().)

System_CAPS_pubmethodGetType()

Gets the Type of the current instance.(Inherited from Object.)

System_CAPS_pubmethodGetTypeCode()

Returns the type code for the Boolean value type.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParse(String)

Converts the specified string representation of a logical value to its Boolean equivalent.

System_CAPS_pubmethodToString()

Converts the value of this instance to its equivalent string representation (either "True" or "False").(Overrides ValueType.ToString().)

System_CAPS_pubmethodToString(IFormatProvider)

Converts the value of this instance to its equivalent string representation (either "True" or "False").

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParse(String, Boolean)

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticFalseString

Represents the Boolean value false as a string. This field is read-only.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticTrueString

Represents the Boolean value true as a string. This field is read-only.

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToBoolean(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToBoolean.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToByte(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToByte.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToChar(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToDateTime(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToDecimal(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDecimal..

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToDouble(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDouble..

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToInt16(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt16.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToInt32(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToInt64(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToSByte(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSByte.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToSingle(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSingle..

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToType(Type, IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToType.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToUInt16(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToUInt16.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToUInt32(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToUInt32.

System_CAPS_pubinterfaceSystem_CAPS_privmethodIConvertible.ToUInt64(IFormatProvider)

This API supports the product infrastructure and is not intended to be used directly from your code. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToUInt64.

A Boolean instance can have either of two values: true, or false.

The Boolean structure provides methods that support the following tasks:

The following sections explain these tasks and other usage details:

Formatting Boolean values
Converting to and from Boolean values
Parsing Boolean values
Comparing Boolean values
Working with Booleans as binary values
Performing operations with Boolean values
Booleans and Interop

The string representation of a Boolean is either "True" for a true value or "False" for a false value. The string representation of a Boolean value is defined by the read-only TrueString and FalseString fields.

You use the ToString method to convert Boolean values to strings. The Boolean structure includes two ToString overloads: the parameterless ToString() method and the ToString(IFormatProvider) method, which includes a parameter that controls formatting. However, because this parameter is ignored, the two overloads produce identical strings. The ToString(IFormatProvider) method does not support culture-sensitive formatting.

The following example illustrates formatting with the ToString method. Note that the example uses the composite formatting feature, so the ToString method is called implicitly.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim raining As Boolean = False
      Dim busLate As Boolean = True

      Console.WriteLine("It is raining: {0}", raining)
      Console.WriteLine("The bus is late: {0}", busLate)
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       It is raining: False
'       The bus is late: True

Because the Boolean structure can have only two values, it is easy to add custom formatting. For simple custom formatting in which other string literals are substituted for "True" and "False", you can use any conditional evaluation feature supported by your language, such as the conditional operator in C# or the If operator in Visual Basic. The following example uses this technique to format Boolean values as "Yes" and "No" rather than "True" and "False".

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim raining As Boolean = False
      Dim busLate As Boolean = True

      Console.WriteLine("It is raining: {0}", 
                        If(raining, "Yes", "No"))
      Console.WriteLine("The bus is late: {0}", 
                        If(busLate, "Yes", "No"))
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       It is raining: No
'       The bus is late: Yes

For more complex custom formatting operations, including culture-sensitive formatting, you can call the String.Format(IFormatProvider, String, Object()) method and provide an ICustomFormatter implementation. The following example implements the ICustomFormatter and IFormatProvider interfaces to provide culture-sensitive Boolean strings for the English (United States), French (France), and Russian (Russia) cultures.

Imports System.Globalization

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim cultureNames() As String = { "", "en-US", "fr-FR", "ru-RU" }
      For Each cultureName In cultureNames
         Dim value As Boolean = True
         Dim culture As CultureInfo = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(cultureName)
         Dim formatter As New BooleanFormatter(culture)

         Dim result As String = String.Format(formatter, "Value for '{0}': {1}", culture.Name, value)
         Console.WriteLine(result)
      Next
   End Sub
End Module

Public Class BooleanFormatter 
   Implements ICustomFormatter, IFormatProvider

   Private culture As CultureInfo

   Public Sub New()
      Me.New(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture)
   End Sub

   Public Sub New(culture As CultureInfo)
      Me.culture = culture 
   End Sub

   Public Function GetFormat(formatType As Type) As Object _
                   Implements IFormatProvider.GetFormat
      If formatType Is GetType(ICustomFormatter) Then
         Return Me
      Else
         Return Nothing
      End If                
   End Function

   Public Function Format(fmt As String, arg As Object, 
                          formatProvider As IFormatProvider) As String _
                   Implements ICustomFormatter.Format
      ' Exit if another format provider is used.
      If Not formatProvider.Equals(Me) Then Return Nothing

      ' Exit if the type to be formatted is not a Boolean
      If Not TypeOf arg Is Boolean Then Return Nothing

      Dim value As Boolean = CBool(arg)
      Select culture.Name
         Case "en-US"
            Return value.ToString()
         Case "fr-FR"
            If value Then
               Return "vrai"
            Else
               Return "faux"
            End If      
         Case "ru-RU"
            If value Then
               Return "верно"
            Else
               Return "неверно"
            End If   
         Case Else
            Return value.ToString()  
      End Select
   End Function
End Class
' The example displays the following output:
'          Value for '': True
'          Value for 'en-US': True
'          Value for 'fr-FR': vrai
'          Value for 'ru-RU': верно

Optionally, you can use resource files to define culture-specific Boolean strings.

The Boolean structure implements the IConvertible interface. As a result, you can use the Convert class to perform conversions between a Boolean value and any other primitive type in the .NET Framework, or you can call the Boolean structure's explicit implementations. However, conversions between a Boolean and the following types are not supported, so the corresponding conversion methods throw an InvalidCastException exception:

All conversions from integral or floating-point numbers to Boolean values convert non-zero values to true and zero values to false. The following example illustrates this by calling selected overloads of the Convert.ToBoolean class.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim byteValue As Byte = 12
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(byteValue))
      Dim byteValue2 As Byte = 0
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(byteValue2))
      Dim intValue As Integer = -16345
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(intValue))
      Dim longValue As Long = 945
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(longValue))
      Dim sbyteValue As SByte = -12
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(sbyteValue))
      Dim dblValue As Double = 0
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(dblValue))
      Dim sngValue As Single = .0001
      Console.WriteLine(Convert.ToBoolean(sngValue))
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       True
'       False
'       True
'       True
'       True
'       False
'       True

When converting from floating-point values to Boolean values, the conversion methods perform an exact comparison with zero. If the floating-point value has lost precision, the result can be unexpected. This is illustrated in the following example, in which a Double variable whose value should be zero is converted to a Boolean value. As the example shows, the result is true because repeated additions of 0.2 have resulted in a loss of precision.

When converting from Boolean to numeric values, the conversion methods of the Convert class convert true to 1 and false to 0. However, Visual Basic conversion functions convert true to either 255 (for conversions to Byte values) or -1 (for all other numeric conversions). The following example converts true to numeric values by using a Convert method, and, in the case of the Visual Basic example, by using the Visual Basic language's own conversion operator.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim flag As Boolean = true

      Dim byteValue As Byte   
      byteValue = Convert.ToByte(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, byteValue, 
                                            byteValue.GetType().Name)         
      byteValue = CByte(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, byteValue, 
                                            byteValue.GetType().Name)         

      Dim sbyteValue As SByte
      sbyteValue = Convert.ToSByte(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, sbyteValue, 
                                            sbyteValue.GetType().Name)         
      sbyteValue = CSByte(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, sbyteValue, 
                                            sbyteValue.GetType().Name)         

      Dim dblValue As Double
      dblValue = Convert.ToDouble(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, dblValue, 
                                            dblValue.GetType().Name)         
      dblValue = CDbl(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, dblValue, 
                                            dblValue.GetType().Name)         

      Dim intValue As Integer
      intValue = Convert.ToInt32(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, intValue, 
                                            intValue.GetType().Name)         
      intValue = CInt(flag)
      Console.WriteLine("{0} -> {1} ({2})", flag, intValue, 
                                            intValue.GetType().Name)         
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       True -> 1 (Byte)
'       True -> 255 (Byte)
'       True -> 1 (SByte)
'       True -> -1 (SByte)
'       True -> 1 (Double)
'       True -> -1 (Double)
'       True -> 1 (Int32)
'       True -> -1 (Int32)

For conversions from Boolean to string values, see the Formatting Boolean Values section. For conversions from strings to Boolean values, see the Parsing Boolean Values section.

The Boolean structure includes two static parsing methods, Parse and TryParse, that convert a string to a Boolean value. The string representation of a Boolean value is defined by the case-insensitive equivalents of the values of the TrueString and FalseString fields, which are "True" and "False", respectively. In other words, the only strings that parse successfully are "True", "False", "true", "false", or some mixed-case equivalent. You cannot successfully parse numeric strings such as "0" or "1". Leading or trailing white-space characters are not considered when performing the string comparison.

The following example uses the Parse and TryParse methods to parse a number of strings. Note that only the case-insensitive equivalents of "True" and "False" can be successfully parsed.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim values() As String = { Nothing, String.Empty, "True", "False", 
                                 "true", "false", "    true    ", 
                                 "TrUe", "fAlSe", "fa lse", "0", 
                                 "1", "-1", "string" }
      ' Parse strings using the Boolean.Parse method.                    
      For Each value In values
         Try
            Dim flag As Boolean = Boolean.Parse(value)
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' --> {1}", value, flag)
         Catch e As ArgumentException
            Console.WriteLine("Cannot parse a null string.")
         Catch e As FormatException
            Console.WriteLine("Cannot parse '{0}'.", value)
         End Try         
      Next  
      Console.WriteLine()
      ' Parse strings using the Boolean.TryParse method.                    
      For Each value In values
         Dim flag As Boolean = False
         If Boolean.TryParse(value, flag)
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' --> {1}", value, flag)
         Else
            Console.WriteLine("Cannot parse '{0}'.", value)
         End If         
      Next  
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       Cannot parse a null string.
'       Cannot parse ''.
'       'True' --> True
'       'False' --> False
'       'true' --> True
'       'false' --> False
'       '    true    ' --> True
'       'TrUe' --> True
'       'fAlSe' --> False
'       Cannot parse 'fa lse'.
'       Cannot parse '0'.
'       Cannot parse '1'.
'       Cannot parse '-1'.
'       Cannot parse 'string'.
'       
'       Unable to parse ''
'       Unable to parse ''
'       'True' --> True
'       'False' --> False
'       'true' --> True
'       'false' --> False
'       '    true    ' --> True
'       'TrUe' --> True
'       'fAlSe' --> False
'       Cannot parse 'fa lse'.
'       Unable to parse '0'
'       Unable to parse '1'
'       Unable to parse '-1'
'       Unable to parse 'string'

If you are programming in Visual Basic, you can use the CBool function to convert the string representation of a number to a Boolean value. "0" is converted to false, and the string representation of any non-zero value is converted to true. If you are not programming in Visual Basic, you must convert your numeric string to a number before converting it to a Boolean. The following example illustrates this by converting an array of integers to Boolean values.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim values() As String = { "09", "12.6", "0", "-13 " }
      For Each value In values
         Dim success, result As Boolean
         Dim number As Integer 
         success = Int32.TryParse(value, number)
         If success Then
            ' The method throws no exceptions.
            result = Convert.ToBoolean(number)
            Console.WriteLine("Converted '{0}' to {1}", value, result)
         Else
            Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '{0}'", value)
         End If         
      Next
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted '09' to True
'       Unable to convert '12.6'
'       Converted '0' to False
'       Converted '-13 ' to True

Because Boolean values are either true or false, there is little reason to explicitly call the CompareTo method, which indicates whether an instance is greater than, less than, or equal to a specified value. Typically, to compare two Boolean variables, you call the Equals method or use your language's equality operator.

However, when you want to compare a Boolean variable with the literal Boolean value true or false, it is not necessary to do an explicit comparison, because the result of evaluating a Boolean value is that Boolean value. For example, the expressions

If booleanValue Then

and

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim hasServiceCharges() As Boolean = { True, False }
      Dim subtotal As Decimal = 120.62d
      Dim shippingCharge As Decimal = 2.50d
      Dim serviceCharge As Decimal = 5.00d

      For Each hasServiceCharge In hasServiceCharges
         Dim total As Decimal = subtotal + shippingCharge + 
                                If(hasServiceCharge, serviceCharge, 0)
         Console.WriteLine("hasServiceCharge = {1}: The total is {0:C2}.", 
                           total, hasServiceCharge)                       
      Next
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'       hasServiceCharge = True: The total is $128.12.
'       hasServiceCharge = False: The total is $123.12.

are equivalent, but the second is more compact. However, both techniques offer comparable performance.

A Boolean value occupies one byte of memory, as the following C# example shows. The example must be compiled with the /unsafe switch.

using System;

public struct BoolStruct
{
   public bool flag1;
   public bool flag2;
   public bool flag3;
   public bool flag4;
   public bool flag5;
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      unsafe {
         BoolStruct b = new BoolStruct();
         bool* addr = (bool*) &b;
         Console.WriteLine("Size of BoolStruct: {0}", sizeof(BoolStruct));
         Console.WriteLine("Field offsets:");
         Console.WriteLine("   flag1: {0}", (bool*) &b.flag1 - addr);
         Console.WriteLine("   flag1: {0}", (bool*) &b.flag2 - addr);
         Console.WriteLine("   flag1: {0}", (bool*) &b.flag3 - addr);
         Console.WriteLine("   flag1: {0}", (bool*) &b.flag4 - addr);
         Console.WriteLine("   flag1: {0}", (bool*) &b.flag5 - addr);
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Size of BoolStruct: 5
//       Field offsets:
//          flag1: 0
//          flag1: 1
//          flag1: 2
//          flag1: 3
//          flag1: 4

The byte's low-order bit is used to represent its value. A value of 1 represents true; a value of 0 represents false.

System_CAPS_warningWarning

You can use the System.Collections.Specialized.BitVector32 structure to work with sets of Boolean values.

You can convert a Boolean value to its binary representation by calling the BitConverter.GetBytes(Boolean) method. The method returns a byte array with a single element. To restore a Boolean value from its binary representation, you can call the BitConverter.ToBoolean(Byte(), Int32) method.

The following example calls the BitConverter.GetBytes method to convert a Boolean value to its binary representation and displays the individual bits of the value, and then calls the BitConverter.ToBoolean method to restore the value from its binary representation.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim flags() As Boolean = { True, False }
      For Each flag In flags
         ' Get binary representation of flag.
         Dim value As Byte = BitConverter.GetBytes(flag)(0)
         Console.WriteLine("Original value: {0}", flag)
         Console.WriteLine("Binary value:   {0} ({1})", value, 
                           GetBinaryString(value))
         ' Restore the flag from its binary representation.
         Dim newFlag As Boolean = BitConverter.ToBoolean( { value }, 0)
         Console.WriteLine("Restored value: {0}", flag)
         Console.WriteLine()
      Next
   End Sub

   Private Function GetBinaryString(value As Byte) As String
      Dim retVal As String = Convert.ToString(value, 2)
      Return New String("0"c, 8 - retVal.Length) + retVal
   End Function
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       Original value: True
'       Binary value:   1 (00000001)
'       Restored value: True
'       
'       Original value: False
'       Binary value:   0 (00000000)
'       Restored value: False

This section illustrates how Boolean values are used in apps. The first section discusses its use as a flag. The second illustrates its use for arithmetic operations.

Boolean variables are most commonly used as flags, to signal the presence or absence of some condition. For example, in the String.Compare(String, String, Boolean) method, the final parameter, ignoreCase, is a flag that indicates whether the comparison of two strings is case-insensitive (ignoreCase is true) or case-sensitive (ignoreCase is false). The value of the flag can then be evaluated in a conditional statement.

The following example uses a simple console app to illustrate the use of Boolean variables as flags. The app accepts command-line parameters that enable output to be redirected to a specified file (the /f switch), and that enable output to be sent both to a specified file and to the console (the /b switch). The app defines a flag named isRedirected to indicate whether output is to be sent to a file, and a flag named isBoth to indicate that output should be sent to the console.

Imports System.IO
Imports System.Threading

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Initialize flag variables.
      Dim isRedirected, isBoth As Boolean 
      Dim fileName As String = ""
      Dim sw As StreamWriter = Nothing

      ' Get any command line arguments.
      Dim args() As String = Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()
      ' Handle any arguments.
      If args.Length > 1 Then
         For ctr = 1 To args.Length - 1
            Dim arg As String = args(ctr)
            If arg.StartsWith("/") OrElse arg.StartsWith("-") Then
               Select Case arg.Substring(1).ToLower()
                  Case "f"
                     isRedirected = True
                     If args.Length < ctr + 2 Then
                        ShowSyntax("The /f switch must be followed by a filename.")
                        Exit Sub
                     End If
                     fileName = args(ctr + 1)
                     ctr += 1
                  Case "b"
                     isBoth = True
                  Case Else
                     ShowSyntax(String.Format("The {0} switch is not supported", 
                                              args(ctr)))
                     Exit Sub
               End Select
            End If   
         Next
      End If

      ' If isBoth is True, isRedirected must be True.
      If isBoth And Not isRedirected Then 
         ShowSyntax("The /f switch must be used if /b is used.")
         Exit Sub
      End If

      ' Handle output.
      If isRedirected Then
         sw = New StreamWriter(fileName) 
         If Not IsBoth Then
            Console.SetOut(sw) 
         End If
      End If     
      Dim msg As String = String.Format("Application began at {0}", Date.Now)
      Console.WriteLine(msg)
      If isBoth Then sw.WriteLine(msg)
      Thread.Sleep(5000)
      msg = String.Format("Application ended normally at {0}", Date.Now)
      Console.WriteLine(msg)
      If isBoth Then sw.WriteLine(msg)
      If isRedirected Then sw.Close()
   End Sub

   Private Sub ShowSyntax(errMsg As String)
      Console.WriteLine(errMsg)
      Console.WriteLine()
      Console.WriteLine("Syntax: Example [[/f <filename> [/b]]")
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub
End Module

A Boolean value is sometimes used to indicate the presence of a condition that triggers a mathematical calculation. For example, a hasShippingCharge variable might serve as a flag to indicate whether to add shipping charges to an invoice amount.

Because an operation with a false value has no effect on the result of an operation, it is not necessary to convert the Boolean to an integral value to use in the mathematical operation. Instead, you can use conditional logic.

The following example computes an amount that consists of a subtotal, a shipping charge, and an optional service charge. The hasServiceCharge variable determines whether the service charge is applied. Instead of converting hasServiceCharge to a numeric value and multiplying it by the amount of the service charge, the example uses conditional logic to add the service charge amount if it is applicable.

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim hasServiceCharges() As Boolean = { True, False }
      Dim subtotal As Decimal = 120.62d
      Dim shippingCharge As Decimal = 2.50d
      Dim serviceCharge As Decimal = 5.00d

      For Each hasServiceCharge In hasServiceCharges
         Dim total As Decimal = subtotal + shippingCharge + 
                                If(hasServiceCharge, serviceCharge, 0)
         Console.WriteLine("hasServiceCharge = {1}: The total is {0:C2}.", 
                           total, hasServiceCharge)                       
      Next
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays output like the following:
'       hasServiceCharge = True: The total is $128.12.
'       hasServiceCharge = False: The total is $123.12.

While marshaling base data types to COM is generally straightforward, the Boolean data type is an exception. You can apply the MarshalAsAttribute attribute to marshal the Boolean type to any of the following representations:

Enumeration type

Unmanaged format

UnmanagedType.Bool

A 4-byte integer value, where any nonzero value represents true and 0 represents false. This is the default format of a Boolean field in a structure and of a Boolean parameter in platform invoke calls.

UnmanagedType.U1

A 1-byte integer value, where the 1 represents true and 0 represents false.

UnmanagedType.VariantBool

A 2-byte integer value, where -1 represents true and 0 represents false. This is the default format of a Boolean parameter in COM interop calls.

Universal Windows Platform
Available since 8
.NET Framework
Available since 1.1
Portable Class Library
Supported in: portable .NET platforms
Silverlight
Available since 2.0
Windows Phone Silverlight
Available since 7.0
Windows Phone
Available since 8.1

All members of this type are thread safe. Members that appear to modify instance state actually return a new instance initialized with the new value. As with any other type, reading and writing to a shared variable that contains an instance of this type must be protected by a lock to guarantee thread safety.

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