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Enumerable.Single<TSource> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>)

Returns the only element of a sequence, and throws an exception if there is not exactly one element in the sequence.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assemblies:   System.Linq (in System.Linq.dll)
  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

public static TSource Single<TSource>(
	this IEnumerable<TSource> source
)

Type Parameters

TSource

The type of the elements of source.

Parameters

source
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>

An IEnumerable<T> to return the single element of.

Return Value

Type: TSource
The single element of the input sequence.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter. For more information, see Extension Methods (Visual Basic) or Extension Methods (C# Programming Guide).

ExceptionCondition
ArgumentNullException

source is null.

InvalidOperationException

The input sequence contains more than one element.

-or-

The input sequence is empty.

The Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>) method throws an exception if the input sequence is empty. To instead return null when the input sequence is empty, use SingleOrDefault.

The following code example demonstrates how to use Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>) to select the only element of an array.

            string[] fruits1 = { "orange" };

            string fruit1 = fruits1.Single();

            Console.WriteLine(fruit1);

            /*
             This code produces the following output:

             orange
            */

The following code example demonstrates that Single<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>) throws an exception when the sequence does not contain exactly one element.

            string[] fruits2 = { "orange", "apple" };
            string fruit2 = null;

            try
            {
                fruit2 = fruits2.Single();
            }
            catch (System.InvalidOperationException)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("The collection does not contain exactly one element.");
            }

            Console.WriteLine(fruit2);

            /*
             This code produces the following output:

             The collection does not contain exactly one element.
            */

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.6, 4.5, 4, 3.5

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

XNA Framework

Supported in: 3.0

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1

Supported in: Windows Phone Silverlight 8.1

Supported in: Windows Phone Silverlight 8
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