CMemoryState Structure

 

The latest version of this topic can be found at CMemoryState Structure.

Provides a convenient way to detect memory leaks in your program.

struct CMemoryState  

Public Constructors

NameDescription
CMemoryState::CMemoryStateConstructs a class-like structure that controls memory checkpoints.

Public Methods

NameDescription
CMemoryState::CheckpointObtains a snapshot (checkpoint) of the current memory state.
CMemoryState::DifferenceComputes the difference between two objects of type CMemoryState.
CMemoryState::DumpAllObjectsSinceDumps a summary of all currently allocated objects since a previous checkpoint.
CMemoryState::DumpStatisticsPrints memory allocation statistics for a CMemoryState object.

CMemoryState is a structure and does not have a base class.

A "memory leak" occurs when memory for an object is allocated on the heap but not deallocated when it is no longer required. Such memory leaks can eventually lead to out-of-memory errors. There are several ways to allocate and deallocate memory in your program:

  • Using the malloc/ free family of functions from the run-time library.

  • Using the Windows API memory management functions, LocalAlloc/ LocalFree and GlobalAlloc/ GlobalFree.

  • Using the C++ new and delete operators.

The CMemoryState diagnostics only help detect memory leaks caused when memory allocated using the new operator is not deallocated using delete. The other two groups of memory-management functions are for non-C++ programs, and mixing them with new and delete in the same program is not recommended. An additional macro, DEBUG_NEW, is provided to replace the new operator when you need file and line-number tracking of memory allocations. DEBUG_NEW is used whenever you would normally use the new operator.

As with other diagnostics, the CMemoryState diagnostics are only available in debug versions of your program. A debug version must have the _DEBUG constant defined.

If you suspect your program has a memory leak, you can use the Checkpoint, Difference, and DumpStatistics functions to discover the difference between the memory state (objects allocated) at two different points in program execution. This information can be useful in determining whether a function is cleaning up all the objects it allocates.

If simply knowing where the imbalance in allocation and deallocation occurs does not provide enough information, you can use the DumpAllObjectsSince function to dump all objects allocated since the previous call to Checkpoint. This dump shows the order of allocation, the source file and line where the object was allocated (if you are using DEBUG_NEW for allocation), and the derivation of the object, its address, and its size. DumpAllObjectsSince also calls each object's Dump function to provide information about its current state.

For more information about how to use CMemoryState and other diagnostics, see Debugging MFC Applications.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

Declarations of objects of type CMemoryState and calls to member functions should be bracketed by #if defined(_DEBUG)/#endif directives. This causes memory diagnostics to be included only in debugging builds of your program.

CMemoryState

Header: afx.h

Takes a snapshot summary of memory and stores it in this CMemoryState object.

void Checkpoint();

Remarks

The CMemoryState member functions Difference and DumpAllObjectsSince use this snapshot data.

Example

See the example for the CMemoryState constructor.

Constructs an empty CMemoryState object that must be filled in by the Checkpoint or Difference member function.

CMemoryState();

Example

         CMemoryState msOld;
         msOld.Checkpoint();
         CPerson* pper1 = new CPerson();
         CPerson* pper2 = new CPerson();
         msOld.DumpAllObjectsSince();               

Compares two CMemoryState objects, then stores the difference into this CMemoryState object.

BOOL Difference(
    const CMemoryState& oldState,   
    const CMemoryState& newState);

Parameters

oldState
The initial memory state as defined by a CMemoryState checkpoint.

newState
The new memory state as defined by a CMemoryState checkpoint.

Return Value

Nonzero if the two memory states are different; otherwise 0.

Remarks

Checkpoint must have been called for each of the two memory-state parameters.

Example

See the example for the CMemoryState constructor.

Calls the Dump function for all objects of a type derived from class CObject that were allocated (and are still allocated) since the last Checkpoint call for this CMemoryState object.

void DumpAllObjectsSince() const;

 

Remarks

Calling DumpAllObjectsSince with an uninitialized CMemoryState object will dump out all objects currently in memory.

Example

See the example for the CMemoryState constructor.

Prints a concise memory statistics report from a CMemoryState object that is filled by the Difference member function.

void DumpStatistics() const;

 

Remarks

The report, which is printed on the afxDump device, shows the following:

A sample report gives information on the number (or amount) of:

  • free blocks

  • normal blocks

  • CRT blocks

  • ignore blocks

  • client blocks

  • maximum memory used by the program at any one time (in bytes)

  • total memory currently used by the program (in bytes)

Free blocks are the number of blocks whose deallocation was delayed if afxMemDF was set to delayFreeMemDF. For more information, see [afxMemDF]--brokenlink--(../Topic/not%20found.md#afxmemdf), in the "MFC Macros and Globals" section. See Types of Blocks on the Debug Heap for more information on these block types.

Example

The following code should be placed in projnameApp.cpp. Define the following global variables:

static CMemoryState oldstate, newstate, diffstate;

In the InitInstance function, add the line:

   oldstate.Checkpoint();

Add a handler for the ExitInstance function and use the following code:

      newstate.Checkpoint();
      if (diffstate.Difference(oldstate, newstate))
      {
         TRACE(_T("Memory leaked\n"));
         diffstate.DumpStatistics();
      }

You can now run the program in Debug mode to see the output of the DumpStatistics function.

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