The !dma extension displays information about the Direct Memory Access (DMA) subsystem, and the DMA Verifier option of Driver Verifier.
!dma !dma Adapter [Flags]
Specifies the hexadecimal address of the DMA adapter to be displayed. If this is zero, all DMA adapters will be displayed.
Specifies the information to include in the display. This can be any combination of the following bits. The default is 0x1.
- Bit 0 (0x1)
Causes the display to include generic adapter information.
- Bit 1 (0x2)
Causes the display to include map register information. (Only when DMA Verification is active.)
- Bit 2 (0x4)
Causes the display to include common buffer information. (Only when DMA Verification is active.)
- Bit 3 (0x8)
Causes the display to include scatter/gather list information. (Only when DMA Verification is active.)
- Bit 4 (0x10)
Causes the display to include the device description for the hardware device. (Only when DMA Verification is active.)
- Bit 5 (0x20)
Causes the display to include Wait context block information.
Windows XP and later
For information about Driver Verifier, see the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) documentation. For information about DMA, see the Windows Driver Kit (WDK) documentation and Microsoft Windows Internals by Mark Russinovich David Solomon. (These resources may not be available in some languages and countries.)
Invalid arguments (for example, !dma 1) generate a brief help text.
When the !dma extension is used with no parameters, it displays a concise list of all DMA adapters and their addresses. This can be used to obtain the address of an adapter for use in the longer versions of this command.
Here is an example of how this extension can be used when the Driver Verifier's DMA Verification option is active:
0:kd> !dma Dumping all DMA adapters... Adapter: 82faebd0 Owner: SCSIPORT!ScsiPortGetUncachedExtension Adapter: 82f88930 Owner: SCSIPORT!ScsiPortGetUncachedExtension Adapter: 82f06cd0 Owner: NDIS!NdisMAllocateMapRegisters Master adapter: 80076800
From this output, you can see that there are three DMA adapters in the system. SCSIPORT owns two and NDIS owns the third. To examine the NDIS adapter in detail, use the !dma extension with its address:
0:kd> !dma 82f06cd0 Adapter: 82f06cd0 Owner: NDIS!NdisMAllocateMapRegisters (0x9fe24351) MasterAdapter: 00000000 Adapter base Va 00000000 Map register base: 00000000 WCB: 82f2b604 Map registers: 00000000 mapped, 00000000 allocated, 00000002 max Dma verifier additional information: DeviceObject: 82f98690 Map registers: 00000840 allocated, 00000000 freed Scatter-gather lists: 00000000 allocated, 00000000 freed Common buffers: 00000004 allocated, 00000000 freed Adapter channels: 00000420 allocated, 00000420 freed Bytes mapped since last flush: 000000f2
The first block of data is specific information that a HAL developer can use to debug the problem. For your purposes, the data below "Dma verifier additional information" is what is interesting. In this example, you see that NDIS has allocated 0x840 map registers. This is a huge number, especially because NDIS had indicated that it planned to use a maximum of two map registers. This adapter apparently does not use scatter/gather lists and has put away all its adapter channels. Look at the map registers in more detail:
0:kd> !dma 82f06cd0 2 Adapter: 82f06cd0 Owner: NDIS!NdisMAllocateMapRegisters ... Map register file 82f06c58 (0/2 mapped) Double buffer mdl: 82f2c188 Map registers: 82f06c80: Not mapped 82f06c8c: Not mapped Map register file 82f06228 (1/2 mapped) Double buffer mdl: 82f1b678 Map registers: 82f06250: 00bc bytes mapped to f83c003c 82f0625c: Not mapped Map register file 82fa5ad8 (1/2 mapped) Double buffer mdl: 82f1b048 Map registers: 82fa5b00: 0036 bytes mapped to 82d17102 82fa5b0c: Not mapped ...
In this example, you see that certain map registers have been mapped. Each map register file is an allocation of map registers by the driver. In other words, it represents a single call to AllocateAdapterChannel. NDIS collects a large number of these map register files, while some drivers create them one at a time and dispose of them when they are finished.
The map register files are also the addresses that are returned to the device under the name "MapRegisterBase". Note that DMA verifier only hooks the first 64 map registers for each driver. The rest are ignored for reasons of space (each map register represents three physical pages).
In this example, two map register files are in use. This means that the driver has mapped a buffer so it is visible to the hardware. In the first case, 0xBC bytes are mapped to the system virtual address 0xF83C003C.
An examination of the common buffers reveals:
0:kd> !dma 82f06cd0 4 Adapter: 82f06cd0 Owner: NDIS!NdisMAllocateMapRegisters ... Common buffer allocated by NDIS!NdisMAllocateSharedMemory: Length: 1000 Virtual address: 82e77000 Physical address: 2a77000 Common buffer allocated by NDIS!NdisMAllocateSharedMemory: Length: 12010 Virtual address: 82e817f8 Physical address: 2a817f8 Common buffer allocated by NDIS!NdisMAllocateSharedMemory: Length: 4300 Virtual address: 82e95680 Physical address: 2a95680 Common buffer allocated by NDIS!NdisMAllocateSharedMemory: Length: 4800 Virtual address: 82e9d400 Physical address: 2a9d400
This is fairly straightforward; there are four common buffers of varying lengths. The physical and virtual addresses are all given.