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IDisposable interface

 

Date de publication : novembre 2016

Fournit un mécanisme pour libérer des ressources non gérées.

Pour parcourir le code source de .NET Framework pour ce type, consultez la Source de référence.

Espace de noms:   System
Assembly:  mscorlib (dans mscorlib.dll)

[ComVisibleAttribute(true)]
public interface IDisposable

NomDescription
System_CAPS_pubmethodDispose()

Exécute les tâches définies par l'application associées à la libération ou à la redéfinition des ressources non managées.

System_CAPS_noteRemarque

To view the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Sourcehttp://referencesource.microsoft.com/#mscorlib/system/idisposable.cs#1f55292c3174123d. You can browse through the source code online, download the reference for offline viewing, and step through the sources (including patches and updates) during debugging; see instructionshttp://referencesource.microsoft.com/.

The primary use of this interface is to release unmanaged resources. The garbage collector automatically releases the memory allocated to a managed object when that object is no longer used. However, it is not possible to predict when garbage collection will occur. Furthermore, the garbage collector has no knowledge of unmanaged resources such as window handles, or open files and streams.

Use the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method of this interface to explicitly release unmanaged resources in conjunction with the garbage collector. The consumer of an object can call this method when the object is no longer needed.

System_CAPS_warningAvertissement

It is a breaking change to add the T:System.IDisposable interface to an existing class. Because pre-existing consumers of your type cannot call M:System.IDisposable.Dispose, you cannot be certain that unmanaged resources held by your type will be released.

Because the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose implementation is called by the consumer of a type when the resources owned by an instance are no longer needed, you should either wrap the managed object in a T:System.Runtime.InteropServices.SafeHandle (the recommended alternative), or you should override M:System.Object.Finalize to free unmanaged resources in the event that the consumer forgets to call M:System.IDisposable.Dispose.

System_CAPS_importantImportant

In the .NET Framework, the C++ compiler supports deterministic disposal of resources and does not allow direct implementation of the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method.

For a detailed discussion about how this interface and the M:System.Object.Finalize method are used, see the Garbage Collection and Implementing a Dispose Method topics.

Implement T:System.IDisposable only if you are using unmanaged resources directly. If your app simply uses an object that implements T:System.IDisposable, don't provide an T:System.IDisposable implementation. Instead, you should call the object's M:System.IDisposable.Dispose implementation when you are finished using it. Depending on your programming language, you can do this in one of two ways:

  • By using a language construct such as the using statement in C# and Visual Basic.

  • By wrapping the call to the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose implementation in a try/catch block.

System_CAPS_noteRemarque

Documentation for types that implement T:System.IDisposable note that fact and include a reminder to call its M:System.IDisposable.Dispose implementation.

If your language supports a construct such as the using statement in C# and the Using statement in Visual Basic, you can use it instead of explicitly calling M:System.IDisposable.Dispose yourself. The following example uses this approach in defining a WordCount class that preserves information about a file and the number of words in it.

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

public class WordCount
{
   private String filename = String.Empty;
   private int nWords = 0;
   private String pattern = @"\b\w+\b"; 

   public WordCount(string filename)
   {
      if (! File.Exists(filename))
         throw new FileNotFoundException("The file does not exist.");

      this.filename = filename;
      string txt = String.Empty;
      using (StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(filename)) {
         txt = sr.ReadToEnd();
      }
      nWords = Regex.Matches(txt, pattern).Count;
   }

   public string FullName
   { get { return filename; } }

   public string Name
   { get { return Path.GetFileName(filename); } }

   public int Count 
   { get { return nWords; } }
}   

The using statement is actually a syntactic convenience. At compile time, the language compiler implements the intermediate language (IL) for a try/catch block.

For more information about the using statement, see the Using Statement (Visual Basic) or using Statement (C# Reference) topics.

If your programming language does not support a construct like the using statement in C# or Visual Basic, or if you prefer not to use it, you can call the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose implementation from the finally block of a try/catch statement. The following example replaces the using block in the previous example with a try/catch/finally block.

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

public class WordCount
{
   private String filename = String.Empty;
   private int nWords = 0;
   private String pattern = @"\b\w+\b"; 

   public WordCount(string filename)
   {
      if (! File.Exists(filename))
         throw new FileNotFoundException("The file does not exist.");

      this.filename = filename;
      string txt = String.Empty;
      StreamReader sr = null;
      try {
         sr = new StreamReader(filename);
         txt = sr.ReadToEnd();
      }
      finally {
         if (sr != null) sr.Dispose();     
      }
      nWords = Regex.Matches(txt, pattern).Count;
   }

   public string FullName
   { get { return filename; } }

   public string Name
   { get { return Path.GetFileName(filename); } }

   public int Count 
   { get { return nWords; } }
}   

For more information about the try/finally pattern, see Try...Catch...Finally Statement (Visual Basic), try-finally (C# Reference), or try-finally Statement (C).

You should implement T:System.IDisposable only if your type uses unmanaged resources directly. The consumers of your type can call your M:System.IDisposable.Dispose implementation to free resources when the instance is no longer needed. To handle cases in which they fail to call M:System.IDisposable.Dispose, you should either use a class derived from T:System.Runtime.InteropServices.SafeHandle to wrap the unmanaged resources, or you should override the M:System.Object.Finalize method for a reference type. In either case, you use the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method to perform whatever cleanup is necessary after using the unmanaged resources, such as freeing, releasing, or resetting the unmanaged resources.

System_CAPS_importantImportant

If you are defining a base class that uses unmanaged resources and that either has, or is likely to have, subclasses that should be disposed, you should implement the M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method and provide a second overload of Dispose, as discussed in the next section.

A base class with subclasses that should be disposable must implement T:System.IDisposable as follows. You should use this pattern whenever you implement T:System.IDisposable on any type that isn't sealed (NotInheritable in Visual Basic).

  • It should provide one public, non-virtual M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method and a protected virtual Dispose(Boolean disposing) method.

  • The M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method must call Dispose(true) and should suppress finalization for performance.

  • The base type should not include any finalizers.

The following code fragment reflects the dispose pattern for base classes. It assumes that your type does not override the M:System.Object.Finalize method.

using Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

class BaseClass : IDisposable
{
   // Flag: Has Dispose already been called?
   bool disposed = false;
   // Instantiate a SafeHandle instance.
   SafeHandle handle = new SafeFileHandle(IntPtr.Zero, true);

   // Public implementation of Dispose pattern callable by consumers.
   public void Dispose()
   { 
      Dispose(true);
      GC.SuppressFinalize(this);           
   }

   // Protected implementation of Dispose pattern.
   protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
   {
      if (disposed)
         return; 

      if (disposing) {
         handle.Dispose();
         // Free any other managed objects here.
         //
      }

      // Free any unmanaged objects here.
      //
      disposed = true;
   }
}

If you do override the M:System.Object.Finalize method, your class should implement the following pattern.

using System;

class BaseClass : IDisposable
{
   // Flag: Has Dispose already been called?
   bool disposed = false;

   // Public implementation of Dispose pattern callable by consumers.
   public void Dispose()
   { 
      Dispose(true);
      GC.SuppressFinalize(this);           
   }

   // Protected implementation of Dispose pattern.
   protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
   {
      if (disposed)
         return; 

      if (disposing) {
         // Free any other managed objects here.
         //
      }

      // Free any unmanaged objects here.
      //
      disposed = true;
   }

   ~BaseClass()
   {
      Dispose(false);
   }
}

Subclasses should implement the disposable pattern as follows:

  • They must override Dispose(Boolean) and call the base class Dispose(Boolean) implementation.

  • They can provide a finalizer if needed. The finalizer must call Dispose(false).

Note that derived classes do not themselves implement the T:System.IDisposable interface and do not include a parameterless M:System.IDisposable.Dispose method. They only override the base class Dispose(Boolean) method.

The following code fragment reflects the dispose pattern for derived classes. It assumes that your type does not override the M:System.Object.Finalize method.

using Microsoft.Win32.SafeHandles;
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

class DerivedClass : BaseClass
{
   // Flag: Has Dispose already been called?
   bool disposed = false;
   // Instantiate a SafeHandle instance.
   SafeHandle handle = new SafeFileHandle(IntPtr.Zero, true);

   // Protected implementation of Dispose pattern.
   protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
   {
      if (disposed)
         return; 

      if (disposing) {
         handle.Dispose();
         // Free any other managed objects here.
         //
      }

      // Free any unmanaged objects here.
      //

      disposed = true;
      // Call base class implementation.
      base.Dispose(disposing);
   }
}

The following example demonstrates how to create a resource class that implements the T:System.IDisposable interface.

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;

// The following example demonstrates how to create
// a resource class that implements the IDisposable interface
// and the IDisposable.Dispose method.

public class DisposeExample
{
    // A base class that implements IDisposable.
    // By implementing IDisposable, you are announcing that
    // instances of this type allocate scarce resources.
    public class MyResource: IDisposable
    {
        // Pointer to an external unmanaged resource.
        private IntPtr handle;
        // Other managed resource this class uses.
        private Component component = new Component();
        // Track whether Dispose has been called.
        private bool disposed = false;

        // The class constructor.
        public MyResource(IntPtr handle)
        {
            this.handle = handle;
        }

        // Implement IDisposable.
        // Do not make this method virtual.
        // A derived class should not be able to override this method.
        public void Dispose()
        {
            Dispose(true);
            // This object will be cleaned up by the Dispose method.
            // Therefore, you should call GC.SupressFinalize to
            // take this object off the finalization queue
            // and prevent finalization code for this object
            // from executing a second time.
            GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
        }

        // Dispose(bool disposing) executes in two distinct scenarios.
        // If disposing equals true, the method has been called directly
        // or indirectly by a user's code. Managed and unmanaged resources
        // can be disposed.
        // If disposing equals false, the method has been called by the
        // runtime from inside the finalizer and you should not reference
        // other objects. Only unmanaged resources can be disposed.
        protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            // Check to see if Dispose has already been called.
            if(!this.disposed)
            {
                // If disposing equals true, dispose all managed
                // and unmanaged resources.
                if(disposing)
                {
                    // Dispose managed resources.
                    component.Dispose();
                }

                // Call the appropriate methods to clean up
                // unmanaged resources here.
                // If disposing is false,
                // only the following code is executed.
                CloseHandle(handle);
                handle = IntPtr.Zero;

                // Note disposing has been done.
                disposed = true;

            }
        }

        // Use interop to call the method necessary
        // to clean up the unmanaged resource.
        [System.Runtime.InteropServices.DllImport("Kernel32")]
        private extern static Boolean CloseHandle(IntPtr handle);

        // Use C# destructor syntax for finalization code.
        // This destructor will run only if the Dispose method
        // does not get called.
        // It gives your base class the opportunity to finalize.
        // Do not provide destructors in types derived from this class.
        ~MyResource()
        {
            // Do not re-create Dispose clean-up code here.
            // Calling Dispose(false) is optimal in terms of
            // readability and maintainability.
            Dispose(false);
        }
    }
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Insert code here to create
        // and use the MyResource object.
    }
}

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