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Array.Sort<TKey, TValue> (Método) (TKey[], TValue[])

 

Sorts a pair of Array objects (one contains the keys and the other contains the corresponding items) based on the keys in the first Array using the IComparable<T> generic interface implementation of each key.

Espacio de nombres:   System
Ensamblado:  mscorlib (en mscorlib.dll)

public static void Sort<TKey, TValue>(
	TKey[] keys,
	TValue[] items
)

Parámetros

keys
Type: TKey[]

The one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the keys to sort.

items
Type: TValue[]

The one-dimensional, zero-based Array that contains the items that correspond to the keys in keys, or null to sort only keys.

Parámetros de tipo

TKey

The type of the elements of the key array.

TValue

The type of the elements of the items array.

Exception Condition
ArgumentNullException

keys is null.

ArgumentException

items is not null, and the lower bound of keys does not match the lower bound of items.

-o-

items is not null, and the length of keys is greater than the length of items.

InvalidOperationException

One or more elements in the keysArray do not implement the IComparable<T> generic interface.

Each key in the keysT:System.Array has a corresponding item in the itemsT:System.Array. When a key is repositioned during the sorting, the corresponding item in the itemsT:System.Array is similarly repositioned. Therefore, the itemsT:System.Array is sorted according to the arrangement of the corresponding keys in the keysT:System.Array.

Each key in the keysT:System.Array must implement the T:System.IComparable`1 generic interface to be capable of comparisons with every other key.

You can sort if there are more items than keys, but the items that have no corresponding keys will not be sorted. You cannot sort if there are more keys than items; doing this throws anT:System.ArgumentException.

If the sort is not successfully completed, the results are undefined.

This method uses the introspective sort (introsort) algorithm as follows:

  • If the partition size is fewer than 16 elements, it uses an insertion sorthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insertion_sort algorithm.

  • If the number of partitions exceeds 2 * LogN, where N is the range of the input array, it uses a Heapsorthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heapsort algorithm.

  • Otherwise, it uses a Quicksorthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quicksort algorithm.

This implementation performs an unstable sort; that is, if two elements are equal, their order might not be preserved. In contrast, a stable sort preserves the order of elements that are equal.

For arrays that are sorted by using the Heapsort and Quicksort algorithms, in the worst case, this method is an O(n log n) operation, where n is the P:System.Array.Length of array.

The following code example demonstrates the M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[]), M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[],System.Collections.Generic.IComparer{``0}), M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[],System.Int32,System.Int32), and M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[],System.Int32,System.Int32,System.Collections.Generic.IComparer{``0}) generic method overloads, for sorting pairs of arrays that represent keys and values.

The code example defines an alternative comparer for strings, named ReverseCompare, which implements the IComparer<string> (IComparer(Of String) in Visual Basic, IComparer<String^> in Visual C++) generic interface. The comparer calls the M:System.String.CompareTo(System.String) method, reversing the order of the comparands so that the strings sort high-to-low instead of low-to-high.

The code example creates and displays an array of dinosaur names (the keys) and an array of integers representing the maximum length of each dinosaur in meters (the values). The arrays are then sorted and displayed several times:

  • The M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[]) overload is used to sort both arrays in order of the dinosaur names in the first array.

  • The M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[],System.Collections.Generic.IComparer{``0}) overload and an instance of ReverseCompare are used to reverse the sort order of the paired arrays.

  • The M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[],System.Int32,System.Int32) overload is used to sort the last three elements of both arrays.

  • The M:System.Array.Sort``2(``0[],``1[],System.Int32,System.Int32,System.Collections.Generic.IComparer{``0}) overload is used to sort the last three elements of both arrays in reverse order.

System_CAPS_noteNota

The calls to the generic methods do not look any different from calls to their nongeneric counterparts, because Visual Basic, C#, and C++ infer the type of the generic type parameter from the type of the first two arguments. If you use the Ildasm.exe (IL Disassembler) to examine the Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), you can see that the generic methods are being called.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class ReverseComparer: IComparer<string>
{
    public int Compare(string x, string y)
    {
        // Compare y and x in reverse order.
        return y.CompareTo(x);
    }
}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        string[] dinosaurs = {
            "Seismosaurus", 
            "Chasmosaurus", 
            "Coelophysis", 
            "Mamenchisaurus", 
            "Caudipteryx", 
            "Cetiosaurus"  };

        int[] dinosaurSizes = { 40, 5, 3, 22, 1, 18 };

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        ReverseComparer rc = new ReverseComparer();

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)");
        Array.Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc);

        Console.WriteLine();
        for (int i = 0; i < dinosaurs.Length; i++)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("{0}: up to {1} meters long.", 
                dinosaurs[i], dinosaurSizes[i]);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes)

Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.

Sort(dinosaurs, dinosaurSizes, 3, 3, rc)

Seismosaurus: up to 40 meters long.
Mamenchisaurus: up to 22 meters long.
Coelophysis: up to 3 meters long.
Chasmosaurus: up to 5 meters long.
Cetiosaurus: up to 18 meters long.
Caudipteryx: up to 1 meters long.
 */

Universal Windows Platform
Disponible desde 10
.NET Framework
Disponible desde 2.0
Silverlight
Disponible desde 2.0
Windows Phone Silverlight
Disponible desde 7.0
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