Transaction (ODBC)


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The latest version of this topic can be found at Transaction (ODBC).

This topic applies to the MFC ODBC classes.

A transaction is a way to group, or batch, a series of updates to a data source so that all are committed at once or none are committed if you roll back the transaction. If you do not use a transaction, changes to the data source are committed automatically rather than being committed on demand.

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Not all ODBC database drivers support transactions. Call the CanTransact member function of your CDatabase or CRecordset object to determine whether your driver supports transactions for a given database. Note that CanTransact does not tell you whether the data source provides full transaction support. You must also call CDatabase::GetCursorCommitBehavior and CDatabase::GetCursorRollbackBehavior after CommitTrans and Rollback to check the effect of the transaction on the open CRecordset object.

Calls to the AddNew and Edit member functions of a CRecordset object affect the data source immediately when you call Update. Delete calls also take effect immediately. In contrast, you can use a transaction consisting of multiple calls to AddNew, Edit, Update, and Delete, which are performed but not committed until you call CommitTrans explicitly. By establishing a transaction, you can execute a series of such calls while retaining the ability to roll them back. If a critical resource is unavailable or some other condition prevents the entire transaction from being completed, you can roll back the transaction instead of committing it. In that case, none of the changes belonging to the transaction affect the data source.

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Currently, class CRecordset does not support updates to the data source if you have implemented bulk row fetching. This means you cannot make calls to AddNew, Edit, Delete, or Update. However, you can write you own functions to perform updates and then call those functions within a given transaction. For more information about bulk row fetching, see Recordset: Fetching Records in Bulk (ODBC).

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Besides affecting your recordset, transactions affect SQL statements that you execute directly as long as you use the ODBC HDBC associated with your CDatabase object or an ODBC HSTMT based on that HDBC.

Transactions are particularly useful when you have multiple records that must be updated simultaneously. In this case, you want to avoid a half-completed transaction, such as might happen if an exception was thrown before the last update was made. Grouping such updates into a transaction allows a recovery (rollback) from the changes and returns the records to the pretransaction state. For example, if a bank transfers money from account A to account B, both the withdrawal from A and the deposit to B must succeed to process the funds correctly or the whole transaction must fail.

In the database classes, you perform transactions through CDatabase objects. A CDatabase object represents a connection to a data source, and one or more recordsets associated with that CDatabase object operate on tables of the database through recordset member functions.

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Only one level of transactions is supported. You cannot nest transactions nor can a transaction span multiple database objects.

The following topics provide more information about how transactions are performed:

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)