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Enumerable.Aggregate<TSource> Method (IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TSource, TSource>)

Applies an accumulator function over a sequence.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

public static TSource Aggregate<TSource>(
	this IEnumerable<TSource> source,
	Func<TSource, TSource, TSource> func

Type Parameters


The type of the elements of source.


Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable<TSource>
An IEnumerable<T> to aggregate over.
Type: System.Func<TSource, TSource, TSource>
An accumulator function to be invoked on each element.

Return Value

Type: TSource
The final accumulator value.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable<TSource>. When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter.


source or func is null.


source contains no elements.

The Aggregate<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TSource, TSource>) method makes it simple to perform a calculation over a sequence of values. This method works by calling func one time for each element in source. Each time func is called, Aggregate<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TSource, TSource>) passes both the element from the sequence and an aggregated value (as the first argument to func). The first element of source is used as the initial aggregate value. The result of func replaces the previous aggregated value. Aggregate<TSource>(IEnumerable<TSource>, Func<TSource, TSource, TSource>) returns the final result of func.

To simplify common aggregation operations, the standard query operators also include a general purpose count method, Count, and four numeric aggregation methods, namely Min, Max, Sum, and Average.

The following code example demonstrates how to use Aggregate to build a sentence from an array of strings.

      string sentence = "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog";

      // Split the string into individual words.
      string[] words = sentence.Split(' ');

      // Prepend each word to the beginning of the 
      // new sentence to reverse the word order.
      string reversed = words.Aggregate((workingSentence, next) =>
                                            next + " " + workingSentence);

      outputBlock.Text += reversed + "\n";

      // This code produces the following output:
      // dog lazy the over jumps fox brown quick the 


Supported in: 5, 4, 3

Silverlight for Windows Phone

Supported in: Windows Phone OS 7.1, Windows Phone OS 7.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: Xbox 360, Windows Phone OS 7.0

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.

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