Windows Dev Center

Language: HTML | XAML

Quickstart: Creating multiple windows for an app (XAML)

You can help your users be more productive by allowing them to view multiple independent functions in separate windows.

Users can quickly switch from one part of the app in one window to another part of the app in another window. They can also compare the contents of multiple windows side-by-side, for example, to view two different documents at the same time or to view a game leader board and the game action in separate windows. The Mail app allows the user to open a message in a new window. The user can compose a new mail and also refer to a message in the Inbox by using multiple windows.

If you create multiple windows for an app, each window behaves independently. The list of recently used apps shows each window separately. Users can move, resize, show, and hide app windows independently and can switch between app windows as if they were separate apps. Each window operates in its own thread.

Mail app with two windows open

This quickstart shows you how to:

  • Create a new window for your app
  • Add content to the new window
  • Display the new window
  • Switch from one window to another
  • Close a window when it falls off the list of recently used apps

This is the C# version of this quickstart. For the JavaScript with HTML/CSS version, see Quickstart: Creating multiple windows for an app (HTML).

Creating multiple windows for an app is different from projecting a separate window of your app on another screen for display only, not for interaction. For more info about projecting a window, see Guidelines for projection manager.

Prerequisites

Create a new view

Create a new thread and a new window on that thread by calling CreateNewView. The pairing of a thread and window together is called a view. Other objects that you create in this view, such as XAML UI elements, are tied to this thread. If you call GetForCurrentView, it returns an ApplicationView instance that is also tied to this thread.

The first view that is created when your app starts is called the main view. If the main view's window closes, the app is terminated.


CoreApplicationView newView = CoreApplication.CreateNewView();

Add content to the new window

Dn582023.wedge(en-us,WIN.10).gifCreate a secondary page

  1. In Solution Explorer, open the shortcut menu for the project node, and then choose Add > New Item.
  2. In the Add New Item dialog box, choose Blank Page in the middle pane.
  3. In the Name box, enter a name for the page, such as SecondaryViewPage, and then choose the Add button.
  4. Add the UI elements and functionality you want on your secondary page. For more info, see Laying out your UI and Guidelines for multiple windows.

Dn582023.wedge(en-us,WIN.10).gifAdd the secondary page content to the new view

  • You use the CoreDispatcher.RunAsync method to schedule work on the UI thread. The work that you schedule on the UI thread is to add content to the new window. You use a lambda expression to pass a function as an argument to the RunAsync method. The function you pass interacts with the new window's UI, therefore you must call the RunAsync method on the new view's thread.

    The lambda function calls the frame.Navigate method to load the content from the secondary page.

    
    await newView.Dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
    {
        var frame = new Frame();
        frame.Navigate(typeof(SecondaryViewPage), null);
        Window.Current.Content = frame;
    });
    
    
    

Display the new window

After you create a new view, which is the pairing of a thread and a window, you can show the new window by using the ApplicationViewSwitcher.TryShowAsStandaloneAsync method. The viewId parameter in the TryShowAsStandaloneAsync method is an integer that uniquely identifies each of the views in your app. You retrieve the view ID by using either ApplicationView.Id or ApplicationView.GetApplicationViewIdForWindow.


var newView = CoreApplication.CreateNewView();
int newViewId = 0;
await newView.Dispatcher.RunAsync(CoreDispatcherPriority.Normal, () =>
{
    var frame = new Frame();
    frame.Navigate(typeof(SecondaryViewPage), null);
    Window.Current.Content = frame;

    newViewId = ApplicationView.GetForCurrentView().Id;
});
bool viewShown = await ApplicationViewSwitcher.TryShowAsStandaloneAsync(newViewId);


We recommend that you don't automatically open a new window when a user navigates to a different part of the app. The user should initiate opening a new window. You can add the TryShowAsStandaloneAsync call to a UI element, for example, a command in the bottom app bar.

Switch from one window to another

You must provide a way for the user to navigate from a secondary window back to the main window. To do this, use the ApplicationViewSwitcher.SwitchAsync method. You call this method from the thread of the window you're switching from and pass the view ID of the window you're switching to.


await ApplicationViewSwitcher.SwitchAsync(viewIdToShow);

In the Mail app, the back button on the secondary window calls SwitchAsync. The Mail app also uses SwitchAsync when a user sends or deletes the message contained in the secondary window. The Mail app replaces the secondary window with the main mail window.

When you use SwitchAsync, you can choose if you want to close the initial window and remove it from the list of recently used apps by specifying the value of ApplicationViewSwitchingOptions.

Close the new window

After you display a secondary window, it remains in the list of recently used apps until the user launches enough other apps for it to fall off the list. The consolidated event occurs when the window is removed from the list of recently used apps, provided that the app has at least one more window remaining in the list. Because each window consumes memory, we recommend that you close the window when it falls off the list.


ApplicationView.GetForCurrentView().Consolidated += ViewConsolidated;

void ViewConsolidated(ApplicationView sender, ApplicationViewConsolidatedEventArgs e)
{
    if (!CoreApplication.GetCurrentView().IsMain)
    {
        Window.Current.Close();
    }
}


Important  Don't close the main view's window because this terminates the app. Windows Store app certification requires that you don't programmatically close an app. Only close a window that is not the main window, as in this example.
 

Summary and next steps

You learned how to create and display a multiple windows for an app. You also learned how to switch from one window to another and how and when to close an app window.

To learn about using projection manager to project a separate window of your app on another screen, see Guidelines for projection manager.

Related topics

Guidelines for multiple windows
Guidelines for projection manager
Guidelines for window sizes and scaling to screens
Multiple views sample

 

 

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