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phoneme Element PLS

Contains the phonetic spelling that describes how a lexeme is pronounced.

Syntax

<phoneme
   prefer = "true" | “false”
   alphabet = “ipa” | “x-microsoft-sapi” | “x-microsoft-ups”
</phoneme>

Attributes

Attribute

Description

prefer

Optional. The possible values are: true or false. The default value is false.

alphabet

Optional. Specifies the pronunciation alphabet used to construct the contained phonetic spelling. The only acceptable values are ipa or x-microsoft-sapi or x-microsoft-ups. These values are case-sensitive and must be entered in lower case.

The pronunciation alphabet specified applies only to the containing phoneme, overriding the value of the alphabet attribute in the lexicon element.

Remarks

A lexeme element may contain multiple phoneme elements. A speech recognition engine will recognize all pronunciations specified in phoneme elements. A speech syntheses engine can speak only one pronunciation and must make a selection if multiple pronunciations are present, using one of the following strategies:

  • If only one pronunciation has prefer set to true, the speech synthesis engine selects it.

  • If more than one pronunciation has prefer set to true, the speech synthesis engine selects the one listed first in the document.

  • If none of multiple pronunciations has prefer set to true, the speech synthesis engine selects the one listed first in the document.

  • Alternatively, a speech synthesis engine may have an internal mechanism that selects pronunciations according to another strategy.

Examples

In the following example, "read" has two pronunciations. A speech recognition engine will recognize both pronunciations, whereas a speech synthesis engine will only use one. Since none of the pronunciations has prefer set to true, unless the speech synthesis engine mandates a different strategy, it will use the first pronunciation in document order, in this case “S1 R EH D”.

Note that the phones in the phoneme element are case-sensitive and must be space-delimited. See Phonetic Alphabet Reference for more information. Each phoneme element can contain only one pronunciation.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<lexicon version="1.0" 
      xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/pronunciation-lexicon"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/pronunciation-lexicon 
        http://www.w3.org/TR/2007/CR-pronunciation-lexicon-20071212/pls.xsd"
      alphabet=“x-microsoft-ups” xml:lang="en-US">

  <lexeme>
    <grapheme> read </grapheme>
    <phoneme> S1 R EH D </phoneme>
    <phoneme> S1 R I D </phoneme>
  </lexeme>

</lexicon>

The following example illustrates the use of the alphabet attribute of the phoneme element to specify two pronunciations for a single instance of the word “lead”, using a different phonetic alphabet than the one specified in the lexicon element.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<lexicon version="1.0" 
      xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/pronunciation-lexicon"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/pronunciation-lexicon 
        http://www.w3.org/TR/2007/CR-pronunciation-lexicon-20071212/pls.xsd"
      alphabet="ipa" xml:lang="en-US">
  <lexeme>
    <grapheme>lead</grapheme>
    <phoneme alphabet=“x-microsoft-sapi”> 1 l iy d</phoneme>
    <phoneme alphabet=“x-microsoft-sapi” prefer=”true”> 1 l eh d</phoneme>
  </lexeme>
</lexicon>

In the example above, a speech recognition engine will recognize both pronunciations. A speech synthesis engine can use only one pronunciation, in this case the second pronunciation listed because it has prefer set to true.

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