# lower_bound

**Visual Studio 2013**

Finds the position of the first element in an ordered range that has a value greater than or equivalent to a specified value, where the ordering criterion may be specified by a binary predicate.

template<class ForwardIterator, class Type> ForwardIterator lower_bound( ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, const Type& value ); template<class ForwardIterator, class Type, class BinaryPredicate> ForwardIterator lower_bound( ForwardIterator first, ForwardIterator last, const Type& value, BinaryPredicate comp );

The sorted source range referenced must be valid; all iterators must be dereferenceable and within the sequence the last position must be reachable from the first by incrementation.

A sorted range is a precondition of using **lower_bound** and where the ordering is the same as specified by with binary predicate.

The range is not modified by the algorithm **lower_bound**.

The value types of the forward iterators need be less-than comparable to be ordered, so that, given two elements, it may be determined either that they are equivalent (in the sense that neither is less than the other) or that one is less than the other. This results in an ordering between the nonequivalent elements

The complexity of the algorithm is logarithmic for random-access iterators and linear otherwise, with the number of steps proportional to (last – first).

// alg_lower_bound.cpp // compile with: /EHsc #include <vector> #include <algorithm> #include <functional> // greater<int>( ) #include <iostream> // Return whether modulus of elem1 is less than modulus of elem2 bool mod_lesser( int elem1, int elem2 ) { if ( elem1 < 0 ) elem1 = - elem1; if ( elem2 < 0 ) elem2 = - elem2; return elem1 < elem2; } int main( ) { using namespace std; vector<int> v1; // Constructing vector v1 with default less-than ordering for ( auto i = -1 ; i <= 4 ; ++i ) { v1.push_back( i ); } for ( auto ii =-3 ; ii <= 0 ; ++ii ) { v1.push_back( ii ); } cout << "Starting vector v1 = ( " ; for (const auto &Iter : v1) cout << Iter << " "; cout << ")." << endl; sort(v1.begin(), v1.end()); cout << "Original vector v1 with range sorted by the\n " << "binary predicate less than is v1 = ( " ; for (const auto &Iter : v1) cout << Iter << " "; cout << ")." << endl; // Constructing vector v2 with range sorted by greater vector<int> v2(v1); sort(v2.begin(), v2.end(), greater<int>()); cout << "Original vector v2 with range sorted by the\n " << "binary predicate greater is v2 = ( " ; for (const auto &Iter : v2) cout << Iter << " "; cout << ")." << endl; // Constructing vectors v3 with range sorted by mod_lesser vector<int> v3(v1); sort(v3.begin(), v3.end(), mod_lesser); cout << "Original vector v3 with range sorted by the\n " << "binary predicate mod_lesser is v3 = ( " ; for (const auto &Iter : v3) cout << Iter << " "; cout << ")." << endl; // Demonstrate lower_bound vector<int>::iterator Result; // lower_bound of 3 in v1 with default binary predicate less<int>() Result = lower_bound(v1.begin(), v1.end(), 3); cout << "The lower_bound in v1 for the element with a value of 3 is: " << *Result << "." << endl; // lower_bound of 3 in v2 with the binary predicate greater<int>( ) Result = lower_bound(v2.begin(), v2.end(), 3, greater<int>()); cout << "The lower_bound in v2 for the element with a value of 3 is: " << *Result << "." << endl; // lower_bound of 3 in v3 with the binary predicate mod_lesser Result = lower_bound(v3.begin(), v3.end(), 3, mod_lesser); cout << "The lower_bound in v3 for the element with a value of 3 is: " << *Result << "." << endl; }

Starting vector v1 = ( -1 0 1 2 3 4 -3 -2 -1 0 ). Original vector v1 with range sorted by the binary predicate less than is v1 = ( -3 -2 -1 -1 0 0 1 2 3 4 ). Original vector v2 with range sorted by the binary predicate greater is v2 = ( 4 3 2 1 0 0 -1 -1 -2 -3 ). Original vector v3 with range sorted by the binary predicate mod_lesser is v3 = ( 0 0 -1 -1 1 -2 2 -3 3 4 ). The lower_bound in v1 for the element with a value of 3 is: 3. The lower_bound in v2 for the element with a value of 3 is: 3. The lower_bound in v3 for the element with a value of 3 is: -3.