Constrains the type on which a virtual method call is made.
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)
The following table lists the instruction's hexadecimal and Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) assembly format, along with a brief reference summary:
FE 16 < T >
Call a virtual method on a type constrained to be type T.
The constrained prefix is permitted only on a callvirt instruction.
The state of the MSIL stack at this point must be as follows:
A managed pointer, ptr, is pushed onto the stack. The type of ptr must be a managed pointer (&) to thisType. Note that this is different from the case of an unprefixed callvirt instruction, which expects a reference of thisType.
Method arguments arg1 through argN are pushed onto the stack, just as with an unprefixed callvirt instruction.
The constrained prefix is designed to allow callvirt instructions to be made in a uniform way independent of whether thisType is a value type or a reference type.
When a callvirt method instruction has been prefixed by constrained thisType, the instruction is executed as follows:
If thisType is a reference type (as opposed to a value type) then ptr is dereferenced and passed as the 'this' pointer to the callvirt of method.
If thisType is a value type and thisType implements method then ptr is passed unmodified as the 'this' pointer to a call method instruction, for the implementation of method by thisType.
If thisType is a value type and thisType does not implement method then ptr is dereferenced, boxed, and passed as the 'this' pointer to the callvirt method instruction.
This last case can occur only when method was defined on Object, ValueType, or Enum and not overridden by thisType. In this case, the boxing causes a copy of the original object to be made. However, because none of the methods of Object, ValueType, and Enum modify the state of the object, this fact cannot be detected.
The constrained prefix supports IL generators that create generic code. Normally the callvirt instruction is not valid on value types. Instead it is required that IL compilers effectively perform the 'this' transformation outlined above at compile time, depending on the type of ptr and the method being called. However, when ptr is a generic type that is unknown at compile time, it is not possible to make this transformation at compile time.
The constrained opcode allows IL compilers to make a call to a virtual function in a uniform way independent of whether ptr is a value type or a reference type. Although it is intended for the case where thisType is a generic type variable, the constrained prefix also works for nongeneric types and can reduce the complexity of generating virtual calls in languages that hide the distinction between value types and reference types.
Using the constrained prefix also avoids potential versioning problems with value types. If the constrained prefix is not used, different IL must be emitted depending on whether or not a value type overrides a method of System.Object. For example, if a value type V overrides the Object.ToString() method, a call V.ToString() instruction is emitted; if it does not, a box instruction and a callvirt Object.ToString() instruction are emitted. A versioning problem can arise in the former case if the override is later removed, and in the latter case if an override is later added.
The constrained prefix can also be used for invocation of interface methods on value types, because the value type method implementing the interface method can be changed using a MethodImpl. If the constrained prefix is not used, the compiler is forced to choose which of the value type's methods to bind to at compile time. Using the constrained prefix allows the MSIL to bind to the method that implements the interface method at run time, rather than at compile time.
The following Emit method overload can use the constrained opcode:
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