How to: Implement Virtual Mode with Just-In-Time Data Loading in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control

The following code example shows how to use virtual mode in the DataGridView control with a data cache that loads data from a server only when it is needed. This example is described in detail in Implementing Virtual Mode with Just-In-Time Data Loading in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

public class VirtualJustInTimeDemo : System.Windows.Forms.Form
{
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();
    private Cache memoryCache;

    // Specify a connection string. Replace the given value with a  
    // valid connection string for a Northwind SQL Server sample 
    // database accessible to your system. 
    private string connectionString =
        "Initial Catalog=NorthWind;Data Source=localhost;" +
        "Integrated Security=SSPI;Persist Security Info=False";
    private string table = "Orders";

    protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e)
    {
        // Initialize the form. 
        this.AutoSize = true;
        this.Controls.Add(this.dataGridView1);
        this.Text = "DataGridView virtual-mode just-in-time demo";

        // Complete the initialization of the DataGridView. 
        this.dataGridView1.Size = new Size(800, 250);
        this.dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        this.dataGridView1.VirtualMode = true;
        this.dataGridView1.ReadOnly = true;
        this.dataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = false;
        this.dataGridView1.AllowUserToOrderColumns = false;
        this.dataGridView1.SelectionMode =
            DataGridViewSelectionMode.FullRowSelect;
        this.dataGridView1.CellValueNeeded += new
            DataGridViewCellValueEventHandler(dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded);

        // Create a DataRetriever and use it to create a Cache object 
        // and to initialize the DataGridView columns and rows. 
        try
        {
            DataRetriever retriever =
                new DataRetriever(connectionString, table);
            memoryCache = new Cache(retriever, 16);
            foreach (DataColumn column in retriever.Columns)
            {
                dataGridView1.Columns.Add(
                    column.ColumnName, column.ColumnName);
            }
            this.dataGridView1.RowCount = retriever.RowCount;
        }
        catch (SqlException)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("Connection could not be established. " +
                "Verify that the connection string is valid.");
            Application.Exit();
        }

        // Adjust the column widths based on the displayed values. 
        this.dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns(
            DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.DisplayedCells);

        base.OnLoad(e);
    }

    private void dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded(object sender,
        DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs e)
    {
        e.Value = memoryCache.RetrieveElement(e.RowIndex, e.ColumnIndex);
    }

    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Run(new VirtualJustInTimeDemo());
    }

}

public interface IDataPageRetriever
{
    DataTable SupplyPageOfData(int lowerPageBoundary, int rowsPerPage);
}

public class DataRetriever : IDataPageRetriever
{
    private string tableName;
    private SqlCommand command;

    public DataRetriever(string connectionString, string tableName)
    {
        SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(connectionString);
        connection.Open();
        command = connection.CreateCommand();
        this.tableName = tableName;
    }

    private int rowCountValue = -1;

    public int RowCount
    {
        get
        {
            // Return the existing value if it has already been determined. 
            if (rowCountValue != -1)
            {
                return rowCountValue;
            }

            // Retrieve the row count from the database.
            command.CommandText = "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM " + tableName;
            rowCountValue = (int)command.ExecuteScalar();
            return rowCountValue;
        }
    }

    private DataColumnCollection columnsValue;

    public DataColumnCollection Columns
    {
        get
        {
            // Return the existing value if it has already been determined. 
            if (columnsValue != null)
            {
                return columnsValue;
            }

            // Retrieve the column information from the database.
            command.CommandText = "SELECT * FROM " + tableName;
            SqlDataAdapter adapter = new SqlDataAdapter();
            adapter.SelectCommand = command;
            DataTable table = new DataTable();
            table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
            adapter.FillSchema(table, SchemaType.Source);
            columnsValue = table.Columns;
            return columnsValue;
        }
    }

    private string commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue = null;

    private string CommaSeparatedListOfColumnNames
    {
        get
        {
            // Return the existing value if it has already been determined. 
            if (commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue != null)
            {
                return commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue;
            }

            // Store a list of column names for use in the 
            // SupplyPageOfData method.
            System.Text.StringBuilder commaSeparatedColumnNames =
                new System.Text.StringBuilder();
            bool firstColumn = true;
            foreach (DataColumn column in Columns)
            {
                if (!firstColumn)
                {
                    commaSeparatedColumnNames.Append(", ");
                }
                commaSeparatedColumnNames.Append(column.ColumnName);
                firstColumn = false;
            }

            commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue =
                commaSeparatedColumnNames.ToString();
            return commaSeparatedListOfColumnNamesValue;
        }
    }

    // Declare variables to be reused by the SupplyPageOfData method. 
    private string columnToSortBy;
    private SqlDataAdapter adapter = new SqlDataAdapter();

    public DataTable SupplyPageOfData(int lowerPageBoundary, int rowsPerPage)
    {
        // Store the name of the ID column. This column must contain unique  
        // values so the SQL below will work properly. 
        if (columnToSortBy == null)
        {
            columnToSortBy = this.Columns[0].ColumnName;
        }

        if (!this.Columns[columnToSortBy].Unique)
        {
            throw new InvalidOperationException(String.Format(
                "Column {0} must contain unique values.", columnToSortBy));
        }

        // Retrieve the specified number of rows from the database, starting 
        // with the row specified by the lowerPageBoundary parameter.
        command.CommandText = "Select Top " + rowsPerPage + " " +
            CommaSeparatedListOfColumnNames + " From " + tableName +
            " WHERE " + columnToSortBy + " NOT IN (SELECT TOP " +
            lowerPageBoundary + " " + columnToSortBy + " From " +
            tableName + " Order By " + columnToSortBy +
            ") Order By " + columnToSortBy;
        adapter.SelectCommand = command;

        DataTable table = new DataTable();
        table.Locale = System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture;
        adapter.Fill(table);
        return table;
    }

}

public class Cache
{
    private static int RowsPerPage;

    // Represents one page of data.   
    public struct DataPage
    {
        public DataTable table;
        private int lowestIndexValue;
        private int highestIndexValue;

        public DataPage(DataTable table, int rowIndex)
        {
            this.table = table;
            lowestIndexValue = MapToLowerBoundary(rowIndex);
            highestIndexValue = MapToUpperBoundary(rowIndex);
            System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(lowestIndexValue >= 0);
            System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(highestIndexValue >= 0);
        }

        public int LowestIndex
        {
            get
            {
                return lowestIndexValue;
            }
        }

        public int HighestIndex
        {
            get
            {
                return highestIndexValue;
            }
        }

        public static int MapToLowerBoundary(int rowIndex)
        {
            // Return the lowest index of a page containing the given index. 
            return (rowIndex / RowsPerPage) * RowsPerPage;
        }

        private static int MapToUpperBoundary(int rowIndex)
        {
            // Return the highest index of a page containing the given index. 
            return MapToLowerBoundary(rowIndex) + RowsPerPage - 1;
        }
    }

    private DataPage[] cachePages;
    private IDataPageRetriever dataSupply;

    public Cache(IDataPageRetriever dataSupplier, int rowsPerPage)
    {
        dataSupply = dataSupplier;
        Cache.RowsPerPage = rowsPerPage;
        LoadFirstTwoPages();
    }

    // Sets the value of the element parameter if the value is in the cache. 
    private bool IfPageCached_ThenSetElement(int rowIndex,
        int columnIndex, ref string element)
    {
        if (IsRowCachedInPage(0, rowIndex))
        {
            element = cachePages[0].table
                .Rows[rowIndex % RowsPerPage][columnIndex].ToString();
            return true;
        }
        else if (IsRowCachedInPage(1, rowIndex))
        {
            element = cachePages[1].table
                .Rows[rowIndex % RowsPerPage][columnIndex].ToString();
            return true;
        }

        return false;
    }

    public string RetrieveElement(int rowIndex, int columnIndex)
    {
        string element = null;

        if (IfPageCached_ThenSetElement(rowIndex, columnIndex, ref element))
        {
            return element;
        }
        else
        {
            return RetrieveData_CacheIt_ThenReturnElement(
                rowIndex, columnIndex);
        }
    }

    private void LoadFirstTwoPages()
    {
        cachePages = new DataPage[]{
            new DataPage(dataSupply.SupplyPageOfData(
                DataPage.MapToLowerBoundary(0), RowsPerPage), 0), 
            new DataPage(dataSupply.SupplyPageOfData(
                DataPage.MapToLowerBoundary(RowsPerPage), 
                RowsPerPage), RowsPerPage)};
    }

    private string RetrieveData_CacheIt_ThenReturnElement(
        int rowIndex, int columnIndex)
    {
        // Retrieve a page worth of data containing the requested value.
        DataTable table = dataSupply.SupplyPageOfData(
            DataPage.MapToLowerBoundary(rowIndex), RowsPerPage);

        // Replace the cached page furthest from the requested cell 
        // with a new page containing the newly retrieved data.
        cachePages[GetIndexToUnusedPage(rowIndex)] = new DataPage(table, rowIndex);

        return RetrieveElement(rowIndex, columnIndex);
    }

    // Returns the index of the cached page most distant from the given index 
    // and therefore least likely to be reused. 
    private int GetIndexToUnusedPage(int rowIndex)
    {
        if (rowIndex > cachePages[0].HighestIndex &&
            rowIndex > cachePages[1].HighestIndex)
        {
            int offsetFromPage0 = rowIndex - cachePages[0].HighestIndex;
            int offsetFromPage1 = rowIndex - cachePages[1].HighestIndex;
            if (offsetFromPage0 < offsetFromPage1)
            {
                return 1;
            }
            return 0;
        }
        else
        {
            int offsetFromPage0 = cachePages[0].LowestIndex - rowIndex;
            int offsetFromPage1 = cachePages[1].LowestIndex - rowIndex;
            if (offsetFromPage0 < offsetFromPage1)
            {
                return 1;
            }
            return 0;
        }

    }

    // Returns a value indicating whether the given row index is contained 
    // in the given DataPage.  
    private bool IsRowCachedInPage(int pageNumber, int rowIndex)
    {
        return rowIndex <= cachePages[pageNumber].HighestIndex &&
            rowIndex >= cachePages[pageNumber].LowestIndex;
    }

}

This example requires:

  • References to the System, System.Data, System.Xml, and System.Windows.Forms assemblies.

  • Access to a server with the Northwind SQL Server sample database installed.

For information about building this example from the command line for Visual Basic or Visual C#, see Building from the Command Line (Visual Basic) or Command-line Building With csc.exe. You can also build this example in Visual Studio by pasting the code into a new project. Also see How to: Compile and Run a Complete Windows Forms Code Example Using Visual Studio.

Storing sensitive information, such as a password, within the connection string can affect the security of your application. Using Windows Authentication (also known as integrated security) is a more secure way to control access to a database. For more information, see Protecting Connection Information.

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