How to: Define and consume enums in C++/CLI

 

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This topic discusses enums in C++/CLI.

By default, the underlying type of an enumeration is int. However, you can specify the type to be signed or unsigned forms of int, short, long, __int32, or __int64. You can also use char.

// mcppv2_enum_3.cpp  
// compile with: /clr  
public enum class day_char : char {sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat};  
  
int main() {  
   // fully qualified names, enumerator not injected into scope  
   day_char d = day_char::sun, e = day_char::mon;  
   System::Console::WriteLine(d);  
   char f = (char)d;  
   System::Console::WriteLine(f);  
   f = (char)e;  
   System::Console::WriteLine(f);  
   e = day_char::tue;  
   f = (char)e;  
   System::Console::WriteLine(f);  
}  

Output

sun  
0  
1  
2  

There is no standard conversion between an enum and an integral type; a cast is required.

// mcppv2_enum_4.cpp  
// compile with: /clr  
enum class day {sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat};  
enum {sun, mon, tue, wed, thu, fri, sat} day2; // unnamed std enum  
  
int main() {  
   day a = day::sun;  
   day2 = sun;  
   if ((int)a == day2)  
   // or...  
   // if (a == (day)day2)  
      System::Console::WriteLine("a and day2 are the same");  
   else  
      System::Console::WriteLine("a and day2 are not the same");  
}  

Output

a and day2 are the same  

The following operators are valid on enums in C++/CLI:

Operator
== != < > <= >=
+ -
| ^ & ~
++ --
sizeof

Operators | ^ & ~ ++ -- are defined only for enumerations with integral underlying types, not including bool. Both operands must be of the enumeration type.

The compiler does no static or dynamic checking of the result of an enum operation; an operation may result in a value not in the range of the enum's valid enumerators.

System_CAPS_ICON_note.jpg Note

C++11 introduces enum class types in unmanaged code which are significantly different than managed enum classes in C++/CLI. In particular, the C++11 enum class type does not support the same operators as the managed enum class type in C++/CLI, and C++/CLI source code must provide an accessibility specifier in managed enum class declarations in order to distinguish them from unmanaged (C++11) enum class declarations. For more information about enum classes in C++/CLI, C++/CX, and C++11, see enum class.

// mcppv2_enum_5.cpp  
// compile with: /clr  
private enum class E { a, b } e, mask;  
int main() {  
   if ( e & mask )   // C2451 no E->bool conversion  
      ;  
  
   if ( ( e & mask ) != 0 )   // C3063 no operator!= (E, int)  
      ;  
  
   if ( ( e & mask ) != E() )   // OK  
      ;  
}  

// mcppv2_enum_6.cpp  
// compile with: /clr  
private enum class day : int {sun, mon};  
enum : bool {sun = true, mon = false} day2;  
  
int main() {  
   day a = day::sun, b = day::mon;  
   day2 = sun;  
  
   System::Console::WriteLine(sizeof(a));  
   System::Console::WriteLine(sizeof(day2));  
   a++;  
   System::Console::WriteLine(a == b);  
}  

Output

4  
1  
True  

enum class

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