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StaticSiteMapProvider Class

Serves as a partial implementation of the abstract SiteMapProvider class and serves as a base class for the XmlSiteMapProvider class, which is the default site map provider in ASP.NET.

Namespace:  System.Web
Assembly:  System.Web (in System.Web.dll)

[AspNetHostingPermissionAttribute(SecurityAction.LinkDemand, Level = AspNetHostingPermissionLevel.Minimal)]
[AspNetHostingPermissionAttribute(SecurityAction.InheritanceDemand, Level = AspNetHostingPermissionLevel.Minimal)]
public abstract class StaticSiteMapProvider : SiteMapProvider

The StaticSiteMapProvider class is a partial implementation of the abstract SiteMapProvider class and supplies two additional methods: AddNode and RemoveNode, as well as the abstract BuildSiteMap and protected Clear methods.

The StaticSiteMapProvider class supports writing a site map provider (for example, an XmlSiteMapProvider) that translates a site map that is stored in persistent storage to one that is stored in memory. The StaticSiteMapProvider class provides basic implementations for storing and retrieving SiteMapNode objects.

The SiteMapProvider and StaticSiteMapProvider classes support the concept of a site map provider hierarchy, where a site map provider can have a hierarchical relationship with other site map providers. This pattern is implemented with the RootProvider and ParentProvider properties.

The StaticSiteMapProvider class stores its SiteMapNode objects in hash tables and internally uses the SiteMapNode.Url property of the pages, represented by site map nodes, as keys. (If a site map node does not specify a URL, it is tracked using an automatically generated unique key.) As a result, you cannot have site map nodes wherein a site map node with the same URL is used more than once. For example, attempting to load the site map node illustrated in the following code example with the XmlSiteMapProvider class, which is the default ASP.NET site map provider, or any site map provider that is derived from the StaticSiteMapProvider class will not work because the AboutUs.aspx page is used more than once.

  <sitemapnode title="Home" description="Home" url="default.aspx" >
    <sitemapnode title="Catalog" description="Our catalog" url="catalog.aspx"/>
    <sitemapnode title="About Us" description="All about our company" url="aboutus.aspx"/>
    <sitemapnode title="Driving Directions" description="Directions to our store" url="aboutus.aspx"/>

If you are extending the StaticSiteMapProvider class, the three most important methods are the GetRootNodeCore, Initialize, and BuildSiteMap methods. The Clear and FindSiteMapNode methods have default implementations that are sufficient for most custom site map provider implementations.

The Initialize method is called to initialize derived site map providers, including any resources that are required to load site map data, but it does attempt to build the site map node in memory. If your derived class is using files to store site map data, any file initialization can be performed here. If the site map node uses some other type of data store, such as a relational database, initializing a connection might be performed here. Additional attributes, such as file names or connection strings that are placed on the site map provider element in the configuration are processed by the ASP.NET configuration system and passed to the Initialize method with the attributes parameter.

The BuildSiteMap method must be overridden by all classes that are derived from the StaticSiteMapProvider class and is called to load the site map node from persistent storage and convert it to an internal representation. The BuildSiteMap method is called internally in many of the default member implementations of the StaticSiteMapProvider and XmlSiteMapProvider classes. If you implement your own site map provider, ensure that site map data processing occurs once and subsequent calls to the BuildSiteMap method return immediately, if site map information has already been loaded. When you implement the BuildSiteMap method, ensure it is thread safe, as multiple concurrent page requests can result indirectly in multiple calls to load site map information. The site map infrastructure supports displaying site map information based on the user's role. Depending on the Roles property that are supported by the individual SiteMapNode objects, a different navigation structure can exist for different users. The default implementations of the site map node retrieval members of the StaticSiteMapProvider class perform security trimming automatically by calling the IsAccessibleToUser method.

The AddNode, Clear and RemoveNode methods manipulate the internal collections that are used to track site map nodes in a thread-safe manner.

Notes to Inheritors:

When you inherit from the StaticSiteMapProvider class, you must override the following member: BuildSiteMap.

The following code example demonstrates how you to extend the StaticSiteMapProvider class to use Microsoft Access as a site map provider. The AccessSiteMapProvider class is a site map provider that supports only a simple, one-level-deep hierarchy. The table that the site map data is stored in has the following structure:

 1      default.aspx   Default    <NULL>
 2      catalog.aspx   Catalog    1
 3      aboutus.aspx   Contact Us 1

The AccessSiteMapProvider class is derived from the StaticSiteMapProvider class and retrieves its information from a Microsoft Access database using basic SQL queries and the OleDbCommand and OleDbDataReader objects.

namespace Samples.AspNet.CS.Controls {

    using System;
    using System.Collections;
    using System.Collections.Specialized;
    using System.Data;
    using System.Data.OleDb;
    using System.Security.Permissions;
    using System.Web;

    /// An extremely simple AccessSiteMapProvider that only supports a 
    /// site map node hierarchy 1 level deep.
    [AspNetHostingPermission(SecurityAction.Demand, Level=AspNetHostingPermissionLevel.Minimal)]
    public class AccessSiteMapProvider : StaticSiteMapProvider
        private SiteMapNode rootNode =  null;
        private OleDbConnection accessConnection = null;

        // This string is case sensitive. 
        private string AccessConnectionStringName = "accessSiteMapConnectionString";

        // Implement a default constructor. 
        public AccessSiteMapProvider () { }

        // Some basic state to help track the initialization state of the provider. 
        private bool initialized = false;
        public virtual bool IsInitialized {
            get {
                return initialized;
        // Return the root node of the current site map. 
        public override SiteMapNode RootNode {
            get {
                SiteMapNode temp = null;
                temp = BuildSiteMap();
                return temp;
        protected override SiteMapNode GetRootNodeCore() {
            return RootNode;
        // Initialize is used to initialize the properties and any state that the 
        // AccessProvider holds, but is not used to build the site map. 
        // The site map is built when the BuildSiteMap method is called. 
        public override void Initialize(string name, NameValueCollection attributes) {
            if (IsInitialized)

            base.Initialize(name, attributes);

            // Create and test the connection to the Microsoft Access database. 

            // Retrieve the Value of the Access connection string from the 
            // attributes NameValueCollection.
            string connectionString = attributes[AccessConnectionStringName];

            if (null == connectionString || connectionString.Length == 0)
                throw new Exception ("The connection string was not found.");
                accessConnection = new OleDbConnection(connectionString);

            initialized = true;

        /// SiteMapProvider and StaticSiteMapProvider methods that this derived class must override. 
        // Clean up any collections or other state that an instance of this may hold. 
        protected override void Clear() {
            lock (this) {
                rootNode = null;

        // Build an in-memory representation from persistent 
        // storage, and return the root node of the site map. 
        public override SiteMapNode BuildSiteMap() {

            // Since the SiteMap class is static, make sure that it is 
            // not modified while the site map is built.
            lock(this) {

                // If there is no initialization, this method is being 
                // called out of order. 
                if (! IsInitialized) {
                    throw new Exception("BuildSiteMap called incorrectly.");

                // If there is no root node, then there is no site map. 
                if (null == rootNode) {
                    // Start with a clean slate

                    // Select the root node of the site map from Microsoft Access. 
                    int rootNodeId = -1;

                    if (accessConnection.State == ConnectionState.Closed)
                    OleDbCommand rootNodeCommand =
                        new OleDbCommand("SELECT nodeid, url, name FROM SiteMap WHERE parentnodeid IS NULL",
                    OleDbDataReader rootNodeReader = rootNodeCommand.ExecuteReader();

                    if(rootNodeReader.HasRows) {
                        rootNodeId = rootNodeReader.GetInt32(0);
                        // Create a SiteMapNode that references the current StaticSiteMapProvider.
                        rootNode   = new SiteMapNode(this,

                    else return null;

                    // Select the child nodes of the root node.
                    OleDbCommand childNodesCommand =
                        new OleDbCommand("SELECT nodeid, url, name FROM SiteMap WHERE parentnodeid = ?",
                    OleDbParameter rootParam = new OleDbParameter("parentid", OleDbType.Integer);
                    rootParam.Value = rootNodeId;

                    OleDbDataReader childNodesReader = childNodesCommand.ExecuteReader();

                    if (childNodesReader.HasRows) {

                        SiteMapNode childNode = null;
                        while(childNodesReader.Read()) {
                            childNode =  new SiteMapNode(this,

                            // Use the SiteMapNode AddNode method to add 
                            // the SiteMapNode to the ChildNodes collection.
                            AddNode(childNode, rootNode);

                return rootNode;

Finally, the AccessSiteMapProvider is configured as the default provider in the following Web.config file.

    <siteMap defaultProvider="AccessSiteMapProvider">
         type="Samples.AspNet.AccessSiteMapProvider,Samples.AspNet "
         accessSiteMapConnectionString="PROVIDER=MICROSOFT.JET.OLEDB.4.0;DATA SOURCE=sitemap.mdb "/>

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP Starter Edition, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98

The .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework do not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.5, 3.0, 2.0