Type.MakeByRefType Method

Updated: June 2010

Returns a Type object that represents the current type when passed as a ref parameter (ByRef parameter in Visual Basic).

Namespace:  System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

Public Overridable Function MakeByRefType As Type

Return Value

Type: System.Type
A Type object that represents the current type when passed as a ref parameter (ByRef parameter in Visual Basic).


The invoked method is not supported in the base class.


The current type is TypedReference.


The current type is a ByRef type. That is, Type.IsByRef returns true.

The MakeByRefType method provides a way to generate ref types (ByRef in Visual Basic) for parameter lists.

Using the syntax of Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), if the current Type object represents Int32, this method returns a Type object representing Int32&.

Platform Notes

Silverlight for Windows Phone Silverlight for Windows Phone

 MakeByRefType does not throw TypeLoadException when the MakeByRefType method for a byref type is called.

The following code example creates array, ref (ByRef in Visual Basic), and pointer types for the Test class.

Imports System.Reflection

Public Class Example
   Public Shared Sub Demo(ByVal outputBlock As System.Windows.Controls.TextBlock)
      ' Create a Type object that represents a one-dimensional
      ' array of Example objects.
      Dim t As Type = GetType(Example).MakeArrayType()
      outputBlock.Text &= vbCrLf & "Array of Example: " & t.ToString() & vbCrLf

      ' Create a Type object that represents a two-dimensional
      ' array of Example objects.
      t = GetType(Example).MakeArrayType(2)
      outputBlock.Text &= vbCrLf & "Two-dimensional array of Example: " & t.ToString() & vbCrLf

      ' Demonstrate an exception when an invalid array rank is
      ' specified.
         t = GetType(Example).MakeArrayType(-1)
      Catch ex As Exception
         outputBlock.Text &= vbCrLf & ex.ToString() & vbCrLf
      End Try

      ' Create a Type object that represents a ByRef parameter
      ' of type Example.
      t = GetType(Example).MakeByRefType()
      outputBlock.Text &= vbCrLf & "ByRef Example: " & t.ToString() & vbCrLf

      ' Get a Type object representing the Example class, a
      ' MethodInfo representing the "Test" method, a ParameterInfo
      ' representing the parameter of type Example, and finally
      ' a Type object representing the type of this ByRef parameter.
      ' Compare this Type object with the Type object created using
      ' MakeByRefType.
      Dim t2 As Type = GetType(Example)
      Dim mi As MethodInfo = t2.GetMethod("Test")
      Dim pi As ParameterInfo = mi.GetParameters()(0)
      Dim pt As Type = pi.ParameterType
      outputBlock.Text &= "Are the ByRef types equal? " & (t Is pt) & vbCrLf

      ' Create a Type object that represents a pointer to an
      ' Example object.
      t = GetType(Example).MakePointerType()
      outputBlock.Text &= vbCrLf & "Pointer to Example: " & t.ToString() & vbCrLf
   End Sub

   ' A sample method with a ByRef parameter.
   Public Sub Test(ByRef e As Example)
   End Sub
End Class

' This example produces output similar to the following:
'Array of Example: SilverlightApplication.Example[]
'Two-dimensional array of Example: SilverlightApplication.Example[,]
'System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
'   at System.RuntimeType.MakeArrayType(Int32 rank) in c:\vbl\ndp\clr\src\BCL\System\RtType.cs:line 2999
'   at SilverlightApplication.Example.Demo(TextBlock outputBlock)
'ByRef Example: SilverlightApplication.Example&
'Are the ByRef types equal? True
'Pointer to Example: SilverlightApplication.Example*


Supported in: 5, 4, 3

Silverlight for Windows Phone

Supported in: Windows Phone OS 7.1, Windows Phone OS 7.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: Xbox 360, Windows Phone OS 7.0

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.




June 2010

Added missing TypeLoadException exception.

Customer feedback.

Community Additions