This documentation is archived and is not being maintained.

XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform Class

Represents the exclusive C14N XML canonicalization transform for a digital signature as defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), with comments.

Namespace: System.Security.Cryptography.Xml
Assembly: System.Security (in

public class XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform : XmlDsigExcC14NTransform
public class XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform extends XmlDsigExcC14NTransform
public class XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform extends XmlDsigExcC14NTransform
Not applicable.

The XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform class represents the exclusive C14N XML canonicalization transform with comments. This class is similar to the XmlDsigExcC14NTransform class, which allows a signer to create a digest using the canonical form of an XML document. However, the XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform class excludes ancestor context from a canonicalized subdocument.

Use the XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform class when you need to canonicalize an XML subdocument so that it is independent from its XML context. For example, applications such as Web services that use signed XML within complex communication protocols often need to canonicalize XML in this manner. Such applications often envelop XML within various dynamically constructed elements, which can substantially change the document and cause XML signature verification to fail. The XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform class solves this problem by excluding such ancestor context from the canonical subdocument.

Note that you cannot directly create a new instance of a canonicalization transform class. To specify a canonicalization transform, pass the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that describes the transform to the CanonicalizationMethod property, which is accessible from the SignedInfo property. To acquire a reference to the canonicalization transform, use the CanonicalizationMethodObject property, which is accessible from the SignedInfo property.

The URI that describes the XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform class is defined by the XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransformUrl field.

For more information about the exclusive C14N transform, see the XMLDSIG specification, which is available from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at The canonicalization algorithm is defined in the W3C Canonical XML specification, which is available at

The following code example shows how to sign and verify an XML document using the XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform class. This example creates an envelope signature.

// This example signs an XML file using an
// envelope signature. It then verifies the 
// signed XML.
using System;
using System.Security.Cryptography;
using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;
using System.Security.Cryptography.Xml;
using System.Text;
using System.Xml;

public class SignVerifyEnvelope

    public static void Main(String[] args)
            // Generate a signing key.
            RSACryptoServiceProvider Key = new RSACryptoServiceProvider();

            // Create an XML file to sign.
            Console.WriteLine("New XML file created.");

            // Sign the XML that was just created and save it in a 
            // new file.
            //SignXmlFile("Example.xml", "SignedExample.xml", Key);
            Console.WriteLine("XML file signed.");

            // Verify the signature of the signed XML.
            Console.WriteLine("Verifying signature...");
            bool result = VerifyXmlFile("SignedExample.xml");

            // Display the results of the signature verification to 
            // the console.
            if (result)
                Console.WriteLine("The XML signature is valid.");
                Console.WriteLine("The XML signature is not valid.");
        catch (CryptographicException e)

    // Sign an XML file and save the signature in a new file.
    public static void SignXmlFile(string FileName, string SignedFileName, RSA Key)
        // Create a new XML document.
        XmlDocument doc = new XmlDocument();

        // Format the document to ignore white spaces.
        doc.PreserveWhitespace = false;

        // Load the passed XML file using it's name.
        doc.Load(new XmlTextReader(FileName));

        // Create a SignedXml object.
        SignedXml signedXml = new SignedXml(doc);

        // Add the key to the SignedXml document. 
        signedXml.SigningKey = Key;

        // Specify a canonicalization method.
        signedXml.SignedInfo.CanonicalizationMethod = SignedXml.XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransformUrl;

        // Set the InclusiveNamespacesPrefixList property.
        XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform canMethod = (XmlDsigExcC14NWithCommentsTransform)signedXml.SignedInfo.CanonicalizationMethodObject;
        canMethod.InclusiveNamespacesPrefixList = "Sign";

        // Create a reference to be signed.
        Reference reference = new Reference();
        reference.Uri = "";

        // Add an enveloped transformation to the reference.
        XmlDsigEnvelopedSignatureTransform env = new XmlDsigEnvelopedSignatureTransform();

        // Add the reference to the SignedXml object.

        // Add an RSAKeyValue KeyInfo (optional; helps recipient find key to validate).
        KeyInfo keyInfo = new KeyInfo();
        keyInfo.AddClause(new RSAKeyValue((RSA)Key));
        signedXml.KeyInfo = keyInfo;

        // Compute the signature.

        // Get the XML representation of the signature and save
        // it to an XmlElement object.
        XmlElement xmlDigitalSignature = signedXml.GetXml();

        // Append the element to the XML document.
        doc.DocumentElement.AppendChild(doc.ImportNode(xmlDigitalSignature, true));

        if (doc.FirstChild is XmlDeclaration)

        // Save the signed XML document to a file specified
        // using the passed string.
        XmlTextWriter xmltw = new XmlTextWriter(SignedFileName, new UTF8Encoding(false));
    // Verify the signature of an XML file and return the result.
    public static Boolean VerifyXmlFile(String Name)
        // Create a new XML document.
        XmlDocument xmlDocument = new XmlDocument();

        // Format using white spaces.
        xmlDocument.PreserveWhitespace = true;

        // Load the passed XML file into the document. 

        // Create a new SignedXml object and pass it
        // the XML document class.
        SignedXml signedXml = new SignedXml(xmlDocument);

        // Find the "Signature" node and create a new
        // XmlNodeList object.
        XmlNodeList nodeList = xmlDocument.GetElementsByTagName("Signature");

        // Load the signature node.

        // Check the signature and return the result.
        return signedXml.CheckSignature();


    // Create example data to sign.
    public static void CreateSomeXml(string FileName)
        // Create a new XmlDocument object.
        XmlDocument document = new XmlDocument();

        // Create a new XmlNode object.
        XmlNode node = document.CreateNode(XmlNodeType.Element, "", "MyXML", "Don't_Sign");

        // Append the node to the document.

        // Create a new XmlNode object.
        XmlNode subnode = document.CreateNode(XmlNodeType.Element, "", "TempElement", "Sign");

        // Add some text to the node.
        subnode.InnerText = "Here is some data to sign.";

        // Append the node to the document.

        // Save the XML document to the file name specified.
        XmlTextWriter xmltw = new XmlTextWriter(FileName, new UTF8Encoding(false));


Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0