DynamicMethod Class

Note: This class is new in the .NET Framework version 2.0.

Defines and represents a dynamic method. This class cannot be inherited.

Namespace: System.Reflection.Emit
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public sealed class DynamicMethod : MethodInfo
/** @attribute ComVisibleAttribute(true) */ 
public final class DynamicMethod extends MethodInfo
public final class DynamicMethod extends MethodInfo

You can use the DynamicMethod class to generate and execute a method at run time, without having to generate a dynamic assembly and a dynamic type to contain the method. Dynamic methods are the most efficient way to generate and execute small amounts of code.

A dynamic method is logically associated with a module or with a type. If it is associated with a module, the dynamic method is effectively global to that module. With sufficient permissions, a dynamic method can skip just-in-time (JIT) visibility checks and access the private data of types declared in that module. You can associate a dynamic method with any module, whether or not you created the module.

If the dynamic method is associated with a type, it has access to the private members of the type. There is no need to skip JIT visibility checks, unless the dynamic method accesses private data of other types declared in the same module. You can associate a dynamic method with any type.

The following table shows which members of types in a module are accessible to a dynamic method, with and without JIT visibility checks, for dynamic methods associated with the module or with a type in the module.


Associated with module

Associated with type

JIT visibility checks

Public and internal members of public, internal, and private types.

All members of the associated type. Public and internal members of all the other types.

Skip JIT visibility checks

All members of all the types.

All members of all the types.

A dynamic method has the permissions of the module with which it is associated, or of the module containing the type with which it is associated.

Dynamic methods and their parameters do not have to be named, but you can specify names to assist in debugging. Custom attributes are not supported on dynamic methods or their parameters.

Although dynamic methods are static methods (Shared methods in Visual Basic), the relaxed rules for delegate binding introduced in the .NET Framework version 2.0 allow a dynamic method to be bound to an object, so that it acts like an instance method when called using that delegate instance. An example that demonstrates this is provided for the CreateDelegate(Type,Object) method overload.

The following code example creates a dynamic method that takes two parameters. The example emits a simple function body that prints the first parameter to the console, and the example uses the second parameter as the return value of the method. The example completes the method by creating a delegate, invokes the delegate with different parameters, and finally invokes the dynamic method using the Invoke method.

using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;
using System.Globalization;

public class Test
    // Declare a delegate type that can be used to execute the completed
    // dynamic method. 
    private delegate int HelloDelegate(string msg, int ret);

    public static void Main()
        // Create an array that specifies the types of the parameters
        // of the dynamic method. This dynamic method has a String
        // parameter and an Integer parameter.
        Type[] helloArgs = {typeof(string), typeof(int)};

        // Create a dynamic method with the name "Hello", a return type
        // of Integer, and two parameters whose types are specified by
        // the array helloArgs. Create the method in the module that
        // defines the String class.
        DynamicMethod hello = new DynamicMethod("Hello", 

        // Create an array that specifies the parameter types of the
        // overload of Console.WriteLine to be used in Hello.
        Type[] writeStringArgs = {typeof(string)};
        // Get the overload of Console.WriteLine that has one
        // String parameter.
        MethodInfo writeString = typeof(Console).GetMethod("WriteLine", 

        // Get an ILGenerator and emit a body for the dynamic method,
        // using a stream size larger than the IL that will be
        // emitted.
        ILGenerator il = hello.GetILGenerator(256);
        // Load the first argument, which is a string, onto the stack.
        // Call the overload of Console.WriteLine that prints a string.
        il.EmitCall(OpCodes.Call, writeString, null);
        // The Hello method returns the value of the second argument;
        // to do this, load the onto the stack and return.

        // Display MethodAttributes for the dynamic method, set when 
        // the dynamic method was created.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nMethod Attributes: {0}", hello.Attributes);

        // Display the calling convention of the dynamic method, set when the 
        // dynamic method was created.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nCalling convention: {0}", hello.CallingConvention);

        // Display the declaring type, which is always null for dynamic
        // methods.
        if (hello.DeclaringType==null)
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nDeclaringType is always null for dynamic methods.");
            Console.WriteLine("DeclaringType: {0}", hello.DeclaringType);

        // Display the default value for InitLocals.
        if (hello.InitLocals)
            Console.Write("\r\nThis method contains verifiable code.");
            Console.Write("\r\nThis method contains unverifiable code.");
        Console.WriteLine(" (InitLocals = {0})", hello.InitLocals);

        // Display the module specified when the dynamic method was created.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nModule: {0}", hello.Module);

        // Display the name specified when the dynamic method was created.
        // Note that the name can be blank.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nName: {0}", hello.Name);

        // For dynamic methods, the reflected type is always null.
        if (hello.ReflectedType==null)
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nReflectedType is null.");
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nReflectedType: {0}", hello.ReflectedType);

        if (hello.ReturnParameter==null)
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nMethod has no return parameter.");
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nReturn parameter: {0}", hello.ReturnParameter);

        // If the method has no return type, ReturnType is System.Void.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nReturn type: {0}", hello.ReturnType);

        // ReturnTypeCustomAttributes returns an ICustomeAttributeProvider
        // that can be used to enumerate the custom attributes of the
        // return value. At present, there is no way to set such custom
        // attributes, so the list is empty.
        if (hello.ReturnType == typeof(void))
            Console.WriteLine("The method has no return type.");
            ICustomAttributeProvider caProvider = hello.ReturnTypeCustomAttributes;
            object[] returnAttributes = caProvider.GetCustomAttributes(true);
            if (returnAttributes.Length==0)
                Console.WriteLine("\r\nThe return type has no custom attributes.");
                Console.WriteLine("\r\nThe return type has the following custom attributes:");
                foreach( object attr in returnAttributes )
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}", attr.ToString());

        Console.WriteLine("\r\nToString: {0}", hello.ToString());

        // Add parameter information to the dynamic method. (This is not
        // necessary, but can be useful for debugging.) For each parameter,
        // identified by position, supply the parameter attributes and a 
        // parameter name.
        ParameterBuilder parameter1 = hello.DefineParameter(
        ParameterBuilder parameter2 = hello.DefineParameter(

        // Display parameter information.
        ParameterInfo[] parameters = hello.GetParameters();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nParameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes");
        foreach( ParameterInfo p in parameters )
            Console.WriteLine("\t{0}, {1}, {2}", 
                p.Name, p.ParameterType, p.Attributes);

        // Create a delegate that represents the dynamic method. This
        // action completes the method, and any further attempts to
        // change the method will cause an exception.
        HelloDelegate hi = 
            (HelloDelegate) hello.CreateDelegate(typeof(HelloDelegate));

        // Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method.
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nUse the delegate to execute the dynamic method:");
        int retval = hi("\r\nHello, World!", 42);
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking delegate hi(\"Hello, World!\", 42) returned: " + retval);

        // Execute it again, with different arguments.
        retval = hi("\r\nHi, Mom!", 5280);
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking delegate hi(\"Hi, Mom!\", 5280) returned: " + retval);

        Console.WriteLine("\r\nUse the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:");
        // Create an array of arguments to use with the Invoke method.
        object[] invokeArgs = {"\r\nHello, World!", 42};
        // Invoke the dynamic method using the arguments. This is much
        // slower than using the delegate, because you must create an
        // array to contain the arguments, and value-type arguments
        // must be boxed.
        object objRet = hello.Invoke(null, BindingFlags.ExactBinding, null, invokeArgs, new CultureInfo("en-us"));
        Console.WriteLine("hello.Invoke returned: " + objRet);

/* This code example produces the following output:

Method Attributes: PrivateScope, Public, Static

Calling convention: Standard

DeclaringType is always null for dynamic methods.

This method contains verifiable code. (InitLocals = True)

Module: CommonLanguageRuntimeLibrary

Name: Hello

ReflectedType is null.

Method has no return parameter.

Return type: System.Int32

The return type has no custom attributes.

ToString: Int32 Hello(System.String, Int32)

Parameters: name, type, ParameterAttributes
        message, System.String, In
        valueToReturn, System.Int32, In

Use the delegate to execute the dynamic method:

Hello, World!
Invoking delegate hi("Hello, World!", 42) returned: 42

Hi, Mom!
Invoking delegate hi("Hi, Mom!", 5280) returned: 5280

Use the Invoke method to execute the dynamic method:

Hello, World!
hello.Invoke returned: 42


Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 2.0

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