Was this page helpful?
Your feedback about this content is important. Let us know what you think.
Additional feedback?
1500 characters remaining
Export (0) Print
Expand All

Math.Log Method

Returns the logarithm of a specified number.

Overload List

Returns the natural (base e) logarithm of a specified number.

Supported by the .NET Compact Framework.

[Visual Basic] Overloads Public Shared Function Log(Double) As Double
[C#] public static double Log(double);
[C++] public: static double Log(double);
[JScript] public static function Log(double) : double;

Returns the logarithm of a specified number in a specified base.

[Visual Basic] Overloads Public Shared Function Log(Double, Double) As Double
[C#] public static double Log(double, double);
[C++] public: static double Log(double, double);
[JScript] public static function Log(double, double) : double;

Example

[Visual Basic, C#, C++] The following example uses Log to evaluate certain logarithmic identities for selected values.

[Visual Basic, C#, C++] Note   This example shows how to use one of the overloaded versions of Log. For other examples that might be available, see the individual overload topics.
[Visual Basic] 
' Example for the Math.Log( Double ) and Math.Log( Double, Double ) methods.
Imports System
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

Module LogDLogDD
   
    Sub Main()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "This example of Math.Log( Double ) and " + _
            "Math.Log( Double, Double )" & vbCrLf & _
            "generates the following output." & vbCrLf)
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Evaluate these identities with selected " & _
            "values for X and B (base):")
        Console.WriteLine("   log(B)[X] = 1 / log(X)[B]")
        Console.WriteLine("   log(B)[X] = ln[X] / ln[B]")
        Console.WriteLine("   log(B)[X] = log(B)[e] * ln[X]")
          
        UseBaseAndArg(0.1, 1.2)
        UseBaseAndArg(1.2, 4.9)
        UseBaseAndArg(4.9, 9.9)
        UseBaseAndArg(9.9, 0.1)
    End Sub 'Main
       
    ' Evaluate logarithmic identities that are functions of two arguments.
    Sub UseBaseAndArg(argB As Double, argX As Double)

        ' Evaluate log(B)[X] = 1 / log(X)[B].
        Console.WriteLine( _
            vbCrLf & "                   Math.Log({1}, {0}) = {2:E16}" + _
            vbCrLf & "             1.0 / Math.Log({0}, {1}) = {3:E16}", _
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX, argB), _
            1.0 / Math.Log(argB, argX))
          
        ' Evaluate log(B)[X] = ln[X] / ln[B].
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "        Math.Log({1}) / Math.Log({0}) = {2:E16}", _
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX) / Math.Log(argB))
          
        ' Evaluate log(B)[X] = log(B)[e] * ln[X].
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Math.Log(Math.E, {0}) * Math.Log({1}) = {2:E16}", _
            argB, argX, Math.Log(Math.E, argB) * Math.Log(argX))

    End Sub 'UseBaseAndArg
End Module 'LogDLogDD

' This example of Math.Log( Double ) and Math.Log( Double, Double )
' generates the following output.
' 
' Evaluate these identities with selected values for X and B (base):
'    log(B)[X] = 1 / log(X)[B]
'    log(B)[X] = ln[X] / ln[B]
'    log(B)[X] = log(B)[e] * ln[X]
' 
'                    Math.Log(1.2, 0.1) = -7.9181246047624818E-002
'              1.0 / Math.Log(0.1, 1.2) = -7.9181246047624818E-002
'         Math.Log(1.2) / Math.Log(0.1) = -7.9181246047624818E-002
' Math.Log(Math.E, 0.1) * Math.Log(1.2) = -7.9181246047624804E-002
' 
'                    Math.Log(4.9, 1.2) = 8.7166610085093179E+000
'              1.0 / Math.Log(1.2, 4.9) = 8.7166610085093161E+000
'         Math.Log(4.9) / Math.Log(1.2) = 8.7166610085093179E+000
' Math.Log(Math.E, 1.2) * Math.Log(4.9) = 8.7166610085093179E+000
' 
'                    Math.Log(9.9, 4.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
'              1.0 / Math.Log(4.9, 9.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
'         Math.Log(9.9) / Math.Log(4.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
' Math.Log(Math.E, 4.9) * Math.Log(9.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
' 
'                    Math.Log(0.1, 9.9) = -1.0043839404494075E+000
'              1.0 / Math.Log(9.9, 0.1) = -1.0043839404494075E+000
'         Math.Log(0.1) / Math.Log(9.9) = -1.0043839404494075E+000
' Math.Log(Math.E, 9.9) * Math.Log(0.1) = -1.0043839404494077E+000

[C#] 
// Example for the Math.Log( double ) and Math.Log( double, double ) methods.
using System;

class LogDLogDD
{
    public static void Main() 
    {
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "This example of Math.Log( double ) and " +
            "Math.Log( double, double )\n" +
            "generates the following output.\n" );
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "Evaluate these identities with " +
            "selected values for X and B (base):" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]" );

        UseBaseAndArg(0.1, 1.2);
        UseBaseAndArg(1.2, 4.9);
        UseBaseAndArg(4.9, 9.9);
        UseBaseAndArg(9.9, 0.1);
    }

    // Evaluate logarithmic identities that are functions of two arguments.
    static void UseBaseAndArg(double argB, double argX)
    {
        // Evaluate log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B].
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "\n                   Math.Log({1}, {0}) == {2:E16}" + 
            "\n             1.0 / Math.Log({0}, {1}) == {3:E16}", 
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX, argB),
            1.0 / Math.Log(argB, argX) );

        // Evaluate log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B].
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "        Math.Log({1}) / Math.Log({0}) == {2:E16}",
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX) / Math.Log(argB) );

        // Evaluate log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X].
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "Math.Log(Math.E, {0}) * Math.Log({1}) == {2:E16}", 
            argB, argX, Math.Log(Math.E, argB) * Math.Log(argX) );
    }
}

/*
This example of Math.Log( double ) and Math.Log( double, double )
generates the following output.

Evaluate these identities with selected values for X and B (base):
   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]
   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]
   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]

                   Math.Log(1.2, 0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
             1.0 / Math.Log(0.1, 1.2) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
        Math.Log(1.2) / Math.Log(0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
Math.Log(Math.E, 0.1) * Math.Log(1.2) == -7.9181246047624804E-002

                   Math.Log(4.9, 1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
             1.0 / Math.Log(1.2, 4.9) == 8.7166610085093161E+000
        Math.Log(4.9) / Math.Log(1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
Math.Log(Math.E, 1.2) * Math.Log(4.9) == 8.7166610085093179E+000

                   Math.Log(9.9, 4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
             1.0 / Math.Log(4.9, 9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
        Math.Log(9.9) / Math.Log(4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
Math.Log(Math.E, 4.9) * Math.Log(9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000

                   Math.Log(0.1, 9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
             1.0 / Math.Log(9.9, 0.1) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
        Math.Log(0.1) / Math.Log(9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
Math.Log(Math.E, 9.9) * Math.Log(0.1) == -1.0043839404494077E+000
*/

[C++] 
// Example for the Math::Log( double ) and Math::Log( double, double ) methods.
#using <mscorlib.dll>
using namespace System;

// Evaluate logarithmic identities that are functions of two arguments.
void UseBaseAndArg(double argB, double argX)
{
    // Evaluate log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B].
    Console::WriteLine( 
        S"\n                     Math::Log({1}, {0}) == {2:E16}" 
        S"\n               1.0 / Math::Log({0}, {1}) == {3:E16}", 
        __box(argB), __box(argX), 
        __box(Math::Log(argX, argB)),
        __box(1.0 / Math::Log(argB, argX)) );

    // Evaluate log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B].
    Console::WriteLine( 
        S"         Math::Log({1}) / Math::Log({0}) == {2:E16}",
        __box(argB), __box(argX), 
        __box(Math::Log(argX) / Math::Log(argB)) );

    // Evaluate log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X].
    Console::WriteLine( 
        S"Math::Log(Math::E, {0}) * Math::Log({1}) == {2:E16}", 
        __box(argB), __box(argX), 
        __box(Math::Log(Math::E, argB) * Math::Log(argX)) );
}

void main() 
{
    Console::WriteLine( 
        S"This example of Math::Log( double ) and "
        S"Math::Log( double, double )\n"
        S"generates the following output.\n" );
    Console::WriteLine( 
        S"Evaluate these identities with "
        S"selected values for X and B (base):" );
    Console::WriteLine( S"   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]" );
    Console::WriteLine( S"   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]" );
    Console::WriteLine( S"   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]" );

    UseBaseAndArg(0.1, 1.2);
    UseBaseAndArg(1.2, 4.9);
    UseBaseAndArg(4.9, 9.9);
    UseBaseAndArg(9.9, 0.1);
}

/*
This example of Math::Log( double ) and Math::Log( double, double )
generates the following output.

Evaluate these identities with selected values for X and B (base):
   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]
   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]
   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]

                     Math::Log(1.2, 0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
               1.0 / Math::Log(0.1, 1.2) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
         Math::Log(1.2) / Math::Log(0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
Math::Log(Math::E, 0.1) * Math::Log(1.2) == -7.9181246047624804E-002

                     Math::Log(4.9, 1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
               1.0 / Math::Log(1.2, 4.9) == 8.7166610085093161E+000
         Math::Log(4.9) / Math::Log(1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
Math::Log(Math::E, 1.2) * Math::Log(4.9) == 8.7166610085093179E+000

                     Math::Log(9.9, 4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
               1.0 / Math::Log(4.9, 9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
         Math::Log(9.9) / Math::Log(4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
Math::Log(Math::E, 4.9) * Math::Log(9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000

                     Math::Log(0.1, 9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
               1.0 / Math::Log(9.9, 0.1) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
         Math::Log(0.1) / Math::Log(9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
Math::Log(Math::E, 9.9) * Math::Log(0.1) == -1.0043839404494077E+000
*/

[JScript] No example is available for JScript. To view a Visual Basic, C#, or C++ example, click the Language Filter button Language Filter in the upper-left corner of the page.

See Also

Math Class | Math Members | System Namespace

Show:
© 2015 Microsoft