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ConfigurationManager Class

Provides access to configuration files for client applications. This class cannot be inherited.

Namespace:  System.Configuration
Assembly:  System.Configuration (in System.Configuration.dll)

'Declaration
Public NotInheritable Class ConfigurationManager
'Usage
You do not need to declare an instance of a static class in order to access its members.

The ConfigurationManager class enables you to access machine, application, and user configuration information. This class replaces the ConfigurationSettings class, which is deprecated.

NoteNote:

The name and location of the application configuration file depend on the application's host. For more information, see Application Configuration Files.

You can use the built-in System.Configuration types or derive from them to handle configuration information. By using these types, you can work directly with configuration information and you can extend configuration files to include custom information.

The ConfigurationManager class includes members that enable you to perform the following tasks:

Notes to Implementers:

The Configuration class enables programmatic access for editing configuration files. You use one of the Open methods provided by ConfigurationManager. These methods return a Configuration object, which in turn provides the required methods and properties to handle the underlying configuration files. You can access these files for reading or writing.

To read the configuration files, use GetSection or GetSectionGroup to read configuration information. The user or process that reads must have the following permissions:

  • Read permission on the configuration file at the current configuration hierarchy level.

  • Read permissions on all the parent configuration files.

If your application needs read-only access to its own configuration, we recommend that you use the GetSection method. This method provides access to the cached configuration values for the current application, which has better performance than the Configuration class.

To write to the configuration files, use one of the Save methods. The user or process that writes must have the following permissions:

  • Write permission on the configuration file and directory at the current configuration hierarchy level.

  • Read permissions on all the configuration files.

The following example shows how to use the ConfigurationManager class in a console application. The code shows the following:

  • How to access the appSettings configuration section. If the section does not exist, it is created and added to the configuration file. The example creates the application configuration file if one does not exist.

  • How to access the Machine.config file to obtain information such as the default connection string, if it is defined, and the sections that are currently configured.

    NoteNote:

    When you create a project, make sure to add a reference to the System.Configuration assembly. This assembly contains the ConfigurationManager class.

A Visual Studio project with source code is available to accompany this topic: Download.

Imports System
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Linq
Imports System.Text
Imports System.Configuration
Imports System.Collections
Imports System.Collections.Specialized
Imports System.Diagnostics

' The following example shows how to use the ConfigurationManager  
' class in a console application. 

' IMPORTANT: To compile this example, you must add to the project  
' a reference to the System.Configuration assembly. 
'

#Region "AuxliaryClasses" 

'*** Auxiliary Classes ***// 

' Define a custom configuration element to be  
' contained by the ConsoleSection. This element  
' stores background and foreground colors that 
' the application applies to the console window. 
Public Class ConsoleConfigElement
    Inherits ConfigurationElement
    ' Create the element. 
    Public Sub New()
    End Sub 

    ' Create the element. 
    Public Sub New(ByVal fColor As ConsoleColor, _
                   ByVal bColor As ConsoleColor)
        ForegroundColor = fColor
        BackgroundColor = bColor
    End Sub 

    ' Get or set the console background color.
    <ConfigurationProperty("background", _
                           DefaultValue:=ConsoleColor.Black, _
                           IsRequired:=False)> _
    Public Property BackgroundColor() As ConsoleColor
        Get 
            Return DirectCast(Me("background"), ConsoleColor)
        End Get 
        Set(ByVal value As ConsoleColor)
            Me("background") = value
        End Set 
    End Property 

    ' Get or set the console foreground color.
    <ConfigurationProperty("foreground", _
                           DefaultValue:=ConsoleColor.White, _
                           IsRequired:=False)> _
    Public Property ForegroundColor() As ConsoleColor
        Get 
            Return DirectCast(Me("foreground"), ConsoleColor)
        End Get 
        Set(ByVal value As ConsoleColor)
            Me("foreground") = value
        End Set 
    End Property 
End Class 

' Define a custom section that is used by the application 
' to create custom configuration sections at the specified  
' level in the configuration hierarchy that is in the  
' proper configuration file. 
' This enables the the user that has the proper access  
' rights, to make changes to the configuration files. 
Public Class ConsoleSection
    Inherits ConfigurationSection
    ' Create a configuration section. 
    Public Sub New()
    End Sub 

    ' Set or get the ConsoleElement. 
    <ConfigurationProperty("consoleElement")> _
    Public Property ConsoleElement() As  _
        ConsoleConfigElement
        Get 
            Return (DirectCast(Me("consoleElement"),  _
                    ConsoleConfigElement))
        End Get 
        Set(ByVal value As ConsoleConfigElement)
            Me("consoleElement") = value
        End Set 
    End Property 
End Class
#End Region

#Region "ManagerInteractionClass" 

'*** ConfigurationManager Interaction Class ***// 

' The following code uses the ConfigurationManager class to  
' perform the following tasks: 
' 1) Get the application roaming configuration file. 
' 2) Get the application configuration file. 
' 3) Access a specified configuration file through mapping. 
' 4) Access the machine configuration file through mapping.  
' 5) Read a specified configuration section. 
' 6) Read the connectionStrings section. 
' 7) Read or write the appSettings section. 
Public Class UsingConfigurationManager

    ' Get the roaming configuration file associated  
    ' with the application. 
    ' This function uses the OpenExeConfiguration( 
    ' ConfigurationUserLevel userLevel) method to  
    ' get the configuration file. 
    ' It also creates a custom ConsoleSection and  
    ' sets its ConsoleEment BackgroundColor and 
    ' ForegroundColor properties to blue and yellow 
    ' respectively. Then it uses these properties to 
    ' set the console colors.   
    Public Shared Sub GetRoamingConfiguration()
        ' Define the custom section to add to the 
        ' configuration file. 
        Dim sectionName As String = "consoleSection" 
        Dim currentSection As ConsoleSection = Nothing 

        ' Get the roaming configuration  
        ' that applies to the current user. 
        Dim roamingConfig As Configuration = _
        ConfigurationManager.OpenExeConfiguration( _
            ConfigurationUserLevel.PerUserRoaming)

        ' Map the roaming configuration file. This 
        ' enables the application to access  
        ' the configuration file using the 
        ' System.Configuration.Configuration class 
        Dim configFileMap As New ExeConfigurationFileMap()
        configFileMap.ExeConfigFilename = _
            roamingConfig.FilePath

        ' Get the mapped configuration file. 
        Dim config As Configuration = _
            ConfigurationManager.OpenMappedExeConfiguration( _
                configFileMap, ConfigurationUserLevel.None)

        Try
            currentSection = DirectCast( _
                config.GetSection(sectionName),  _
                ConsoleSection)

            ' Synchronize the application configuration 
            ' if needed. The following two steps seem 
            ' to solve some out of synch issues  
            ' between roaming and default 
            ' configuration.
            config.Save(ConfigurationSaveMode.Modified)

            ' Force a reload of the changed section,  
            ' if needed. This makes the new values available  
            ' for reading.
            ConfigurationManager.RefreshSection(sectionName)

            If currentSection Is Nothing Then 
                ' Create a custom configuration section.
                currentSection = New ConsoleSection()

                ' Define where in the configuration file  
                ' hierarchy the associated  
                ' configuration section can be declared. 
                ' The following assignment assures that  
                ' the configuration information can be  
                ' defined in the user.config file in the  
                ' roaming user directory. 
                currentSection.SectionInformation. _
                AllowExeDefinition = _
                    ConfigurationAllowExeDefinition. _
                    MachineToLocalUser

                ' Allow the configuration section to be  
                ' overridden by lower-level configuration  
                ' files. 
                ' This means that lower-level files can  
                ' contain()the section (use the same name)  
                ' and assign different values to it as  
                ' done by the function  
                ' GetApplicationConfiguration() in this 
                ' example.
                currentSection.SectionInformation. _
                    AllowOverride = True 

                ' Store console settings for roaming users.
                currentSection.ConsoleElement. _
                BackgroundColor = ConsoleColor.Blue
                currentSection.ConsoleElement. _
                ForegroundColor = ConsoleColor.Yellow

                ' Add configuration information to  
                ' the configuration file.
                config.Sections.Add(sectionName, _
                    currentSection)
                config.Save(ConfigurationSaveMode.Modified)
                ' Force a reload of the changed section. This  
                ' makes the new values available for reading.
                ConfigurationManager.RefreshSection( _
                    sectionName)
            End If 
        Catch e As ConfigurationErrorsException
            Console.WriteLine("[Exception error: {0}]", _
                              e.ToString())
        End Try 

        ' Set console properties using values 
        ' stored in the configuration file.
        Console.BackgroundColor = _
            currentSection.ConsoleElement.BackgroundColor
        Console.ForegroundColor = _
            currentSection.ConsoleElement.ForegroundColor
        ' Apply the changes.
        Console.Clear()

        ' Display feedback.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Using OpenExeConfiguration(userLevel).")
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Configuration file is: {0}", config.FilePath)
    End Sub 

    ' Get the application configuration file. 
    ' This function uses the  
    ' OpenExeConfiguration(string)method  
    ' to get the application configuration file.  
    ' It also creates a custom ConsoleSection and  
    ' sets its ConsoleEment BackgroundColor and 
    ' ForegroundColor properties to black and white 
    ' respectively. Then it uses these properties to 
    ' set the console colors.   
    Public Shared Sub GetAppConfiguration()
        ' Get the application path needed to obtain 
        ' the application configuration file.
#If DEBUG Then 
        Dim applicationName As String = _
            Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()(0)
#Else 
            Dim applicationName As String = _
                Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()(0) + ".exe"
#End If 

        Dim exePath As String = _
        System.IO.Path.Combine( _
            Environment.CurrentDirectory, applicationName)

        ' Get the configuration file. The file name has 
        ' this format appname.exe.config. 
        Dim config As System.Configuration.Configuration = _
            ConfigurationManager.OpenExeConfiguration(exePath)

        Try 

            ' Create a custom configuration section 
            ' having the same name that is used in the  
            ' roaming configuration file. 
            ' This is because the configuration section  
            ' can be overridden by lower-level  
            ' configuration files.  
            ' See the GetRoamingConfiguration() function in  
            ' this example. 
            Dim sectionName As String = "consoleSection" 
            Dim customSection As New ConsoleSection()

            If config.Sections(sectionName) Is Nothing Then 
                ' Create a custom section if it does  
                ' not exist yet. 

                ' Store console settings.
                customSection.ConsoleElement. _
                    BackgroundColor = ConsoleColor.Black
                customSection.ConsoleElement. _
                    ForegroundColor = ConsoleColor.White

                ' Add configuration information to the 
                ' configuration file.
                config.Sections.Add(sectionName, _
                                    customSection)
                config.Save(ConfigurationSaveMode.Modified)
                ' Force a reload of the changed section. 
                ' This makes the new values available  
                ' for reading.
                ConfigurationManager.RefreshSection( _
                    sectionName)
            End If 
            ' Set console properties using values 
            ' stored in the configuration file.
            customSection = DirectCast( _
                config.GetSection(sectionName),  _
                    ConsoleSection)
            Console.BackgroundColor = _
                customSection.ConsoleElement.BackgroundColor
            Console.ForegroundColor = _
                customSection.ConsoleElement.ForegroundColor
            ' Apply the changes.
            Console.Clear()
        Catch e As ConfigurationErrorsException
            Console.WriteLine("[Error exception: {0}]", _
                              e.ToString())
        End Try 

        ' Display feedback.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Using OpenExeConfiguration(string).")
        ' Display the current configuration file path.
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Configuration file is: {0}", config.FilePath)
    End Sub 

    ' Get the AppSettings section.         
    ' This function uses the AppSettings property 
    ' to read the appSettings configuration  
    ' section. 
    Public Shared Sub ReadAppSettings()
        Try 
            ' Get the AppSettings section. 
            Dim appSettings As NameValueCollection = _
                ConfigurationManager.AppSettings

            ' Get the AppSettings section elements.
            Console.WriteLine()
            Console.WriteLine("Using AppSettings property.")
            Console.WriteLine("Application settings:")

            If appSettings.Count = 0 Then
                Console.WriteLine( _
                "[ReadAppSettings: {0}]", _
                "AppSettings is empty Use GetSection first.")
            End If 
            Dim i As Integer = 0
            While i < appSettings.Count
                Console.WriteLine( _
                    "#{0} Key: {1} Value: {2}", _
                    i, appSettings.GetKey(i), appSettings(i))
                System.Math.Max( _
                    System.Threading.Interlocked. _
                    Increment(i), i - 1)
            End While 
        Catch e As ConfigurationErrorsException
            Console.WriteLine("[ReadAppSettings: {0}]", _
                              e.ToString())
        End Try 
    End Sub 

    ' Get the ConnectionStrings section.         
    ' This function uses the ConnectionStrings  
    ' property to read the connectionStrings 
    ' configuration section. 
    Public Shared Sub ReadConnectionStrings()

        ' Get the ConnectionStrings collection. 
        Dim connections _
            As ConnectionStringSettingsCollection = _
                ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings

        If connections.Count <> 0 Then
            Console.WriteLine()
            Console.WriteLine( _
                "Using ConnectionStrings property.")
            Console.WriteLine( _
                "Connection strings:")

            ' Get the collection elements. 
            For Each connection _
                As ConnectionStringSettings In connections
                Dim name As String = connection.Name
                Dim provider As String = _
                    connection.ProviderName
                Dim connectionString As String = _
                    connection.ConnectionString

                Console.WriteLine( _
                    "Name:               {0}", name)
                Console.WriteLine( _
                    "Connection string:  {0}", _
                        connectionString)
                Console.WriteLine( _
                    "Provider:            {0}", provider)
            Next 
        Else
            Console.WriteLine()
            Console.WriteLine( _
                "No connection string is defined.")
            Console.WriteLine()
        End If 
    End Sub 

    ' Create the AppSettings section. 
    ' The function uses the GetSection(string)method  
    ' to access the configuration section.  
    ' It also adds a new element to the section collection. 
    Public Shared Sub CreateAppSettings()
        ' Get the application configuration file. 
        Dim config As System.Configuration.Configuration = _
        ConfigurationManager.OpenExeConfiguration( _
            ConfigurationUserLevel.None)

        Dim sectionName As String = "appSettings" 

        ' Add an entry to appSettings. 
        Dim appStgCnt As Integer = _
            ConfigurationManager.AppSettings.Count
        Dim newKey As String = _
            "NewKey" + appStgCnt.ToString()

        Dim newValue As String = _
            DateTime.Now.ToLongDateString() + " " + _
            DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()

        config.AppSettings.Settings.Add(newKey, _
                                        newValue)

        ' Save the configuration file.
        config.Save(ConfigurationSaveMode.Modified)

        ' Force a reload of the changed section. This  
        ' makes the new values available for reading.
        ConfigurationManager.RefreshSection(sectionName)

        ' Get the AppSettings section. 
        Dim appSettingSection As AppSettingsSection = _
            DirectCast(config.GetSection(sectionName),  _
            AppSettingsSection)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Using GetSection(string).")
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "AppSettings section:")
        Console.WriteLine( _
            appSettingSection.SectionInformation.GetRawXml())
    End Sub 

    ' Access the machine configuration file using mapping. 
    ' The function uses the OpenMappedMachineConfiguration  
    ' method to access the machine configuration.  
    Public Shared Sub MapMachineConfiguration()
        ' Get the machine.config file. 
        Dim machineConfig As Configuration = _
            ConfigurationManager.OpenMachineConfiguration()
        ' Get the machine.config file path. 
        Dim configFile _
            As New ConfigurationFileMap( _
                machineConfig.FilePath)

        ' Map the application configuration file  
        ' to the machine configuration file. 
        Dim config As Configuration = _
            ConfigurationManager. _
            OpenMappedMachineConfiguration( _
                configFile)

        ' Get the AppSettings section. 
        Dim appSettingSection As AppSettingsSection = _
            DirectCast(config.GetSection("appSettings"),  _
                AppSettingsSection)
        appSettingSection.SectionInformation. _
        AllowExeDefinition = _
            ConfigurationAllowExeDefinition. _
            MachineToRoamingUser

        ' Display the configuration file sections. 
        Dim sections As  _
            ConfigurationSectionCollection = _
            config.Sections

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Using OpenMappedMachineConfiguration.")
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Sections in machine.config:")

        ' Get the sections in the machine.config. 
        For Each section _
            As ConfigurationSection In sections
            Dim name As String = _
                section.SectionInformation.Name
            Console.WriteLine("Name: {0}", name)
        Next 

    End Sub 


    ' Access a configuration file using mapping. 
    ' This function uses the OpenMappedExeConfiguration  
    ' method to access a new configuration file.    
    ' It also gets the custom ConsoleSection and  
    ' sets its ConsoleEment BackgroundColor and 
    ' ForegroundColor properties to green and red 
    ' respectively. Then it uses these properties to 
    ' set the console colors.   
    Public Shared Sub MapExeConfiguration()

        ' Get the application configuration file. 
        Dim config As System.Configuration.Configuration = _
        ConfigurationManager.OpenExeConfiguration( _
            ConfigurationUserLevel.None)

        Console.WriteLine(config.FilePath)

        If config Is Nothing Then
            Console.WriteLine( _
            "The configuration file does not exist.")
            Console.WriteLine( _
            "Use OpenExeConfiguration to create file.")
        End If 

        ' Create a new configuration file by saving  
        ' the application configuration to a new file. 
        Dim appName As String = _
            Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()(0)

        Dim configFile As String = _
            String.Concat(appName, "2.config")
        config.SaveAs(configFile, _
                      ConfigurationSaveMode.Full)

        ' Map the new configuration file. 
        Dim configFileMap As New ExeConfigurationFileMap()
        configFileMap.ExeConfigFilename = configFile

        ' Get the mapped configuration file
        config = _
        ConfigurationManager.OpenMappedExeConfiguration( _
            configFileMap, ConfigurationUserLevel.None)

        ' Make changes to the new configuration file.  
        ' This is to show that this file is the  
        ' one that is used. 
        Dim sectionName As String = "consoleSection" 

        Dim customSection As ConsoleSection = _
            DirectCast(config.GetSection(sectionName),  _
                ConsoleSection)

        If customSection Is Nothing Then
            customSection = New ConsoleSection()
            config.Sections.Add(sectionName, customSection)
        End If 

        ' Change the section configuration values.
        customSection = _
            DirectCast(config.GetSection(sectionName),  _
                ConsoleSection)
        customSection.ConsoleElement.BackgroundColor = _
            ConsoleColor.Green
        customSection.ConsoleElement.ForegroundColor = _
            ConsoleColor.Red
        ' Save the configuration file.
        config.Save(ConfigurationSaveMode.Modified)

        ' Force a reload of the changed section. This  
        ' makes the new values available for reading.
        ConfigurationManager.RefreshSection(sectionName)

        ' Set console properties using the  
        ' configuration values contained in the  
        ' new configuration file.
        Console.BackgroundColor = _
            customSection.ConsoleElement.BackgroundColor
        Console.ForegroundColor = _
            customSection.ConsoleElement.ForegroundColor
        Console.Clear()

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Using OpenMappedExeConfiguration.")
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Configuration file is: {0}", config.FilePath)
    End Sub 




End Class
#End Region

#Region "UserInteractionClass" 

'*** User Interaction Class ***// 

' Obtain user's input and provide feedback. 
' This class contains the application Main() function. 
' It calls the ConfigurationManager methods based  
' on the user's selection. 
Class ApplicationMain
    ' Display user's menu. 
    Public Shared Sub UserMenu()
        Dim applicationName As String = _
            Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()(0) + ".exe" 
        Dim buffer As New StringBuilder()

        buffer.AppendLine("Application: " + applicationName)
        buffer.AppendLine("Please, make your selection.")
        buffer.AppendLine("?    -- Display help.")
        buffer.AppendLine("Q,q  -- Exit the application.")
        buffer.Append( _
        "1    -- Use OpenExeConfiguration to get")
        buffer.AppendLine(" the roaming configuration.")
        buffer.Append("        Set console window colors")
        buffer.AppendLine(" to blue and yellow.")
        buffer.Append( _
        "2    -- Use GetSection to read or write")
        buffer.AppendLine(" the specified section.")
        buffer.Append( _
        "3    -- Use ConnectionStrings property")
        buffer.AppendLine(" to read the section.")
        buffer.Append( _
        "4    -- Use OpenExeConfiguration to get")
        buffer.AppendLine(" the application configuration.")
        buffer.Append("        Set console window colors")
        buffer.AppendLine(" to black and white.")
        buffer.Append("5    -- Use AppSettings property")
        buffer.AppendLine(" to read the section.")
        buffer.Append( _
        "6    -- Use OpenMappedExeConfiguration")
        buffer.AppendLine( _
        " to get the specified configuration.")
        buffer.Append("        Set console window colors")
        buffer.AppendLine(" to green and red.")
        buffer.Append( _
        "7    -- Use OpenMappedMachineConfiguration")
        buffer.AppendLine( _
        " to get the machine configuration.")

        Console.Write(buffer.ToString())
    End Sub 

    ' Obtain user's input and provide 
    ' feedback. 
    Shared Sub Main(ByVal args As String())
        ' Define user selection string. 
        Dim selection As String = Nothing 

        ' Get the name of the application. 
        Dim appName As String = _
            Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()(0)


        ' Get user selection. 
        While True

            UserMenu()
            Console.Write("> ")
            selection = Console.ReadLine()
            If selection <> String.Empty Then 
                Exit While 
            End If 
        End While 

        While selection.ToLower() <> "q" 
            ' Process user's input. 
            Select Case selection
                Case "1" 
                    ' Show how to use OpenExeConfiguration 
                    ' using the configuration user level.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        GetRoamingConfiguration()
                    Exit Select 
                Case "2" 

                    ' Show how to use GetSection.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        CreateAppSettings()
                    Exit Select 
                Case "3" 

                    ' Show how to use ConnectionStrings.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        ReadConnectionStrings()
                    Exit Select 
                Case "4" 

                    ' Show how to use OpenExeConfiguration 
                    ' using the configuration file path.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        GetAppConfiguration()
                    Exit Select 
                Case "5" 

                    ' Show how to use AppSettings.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        ReadAppSettings()
                    Exit Select 
                Case "6" 

                    ' Show how to use  
                    ' OpenMappedExeConfiguration.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        MapExeConfiguration()
                    Exit Select 
                Case "7" 

                    ' Show how to use  
                    ' OpenMappedMachineConfiguration.
                    UsingConfigurationManager. _
                        MapMachineConfiguration()
                    Exit Select 
                Case Else

                    UserMenu()
                    Exit Select 
            End Select
            Console.Write("> ")
            selection = Console.ReadLine()
        End While 
    End Sub 
End Class
#End Region

The example works with elements that are similar to the ones illustrated in the following configuration file. These elements are generated the first time that you run the example.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<configuration>
    <configSections>
        <section name="consoleSection" type="Samples.Aspnet.ConsoleSection, 
             ConfigurationManager_CS, Version=1.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null" />
    </configSections>
  <appSettings>
        <add key="NewKey0" value="Monday, March 30, 
             2009 1:36:33 PM" />
        <add key="NewKey1" value="Monday, March 30, 
             2009 1:36:40 PM" />
    </appSettings>
  <consoleSection>
        <consoleElement background="Black" foreground="White" />
    </consoleSection>
</configuration>

System.Object
  System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP Starter Edition, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98

The .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework do not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.5, 3.0, 2.0

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