AsyncOperationManager Class
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AsyncOperationManager Class

Provides concurrency management for classes that support asynchronous method calls. This class cannot be inherited.


Namespace:  System.ComponentModel
Assembly:  System (in System.dll)

Public NotInheritable Class AsyncOperationManager

The AsyncOperationManager type exposes the following members.

Public propertyStatic memberSupported by Silverlight for Windows PhoneSupported by Xbox 360SynchronizationContextGets or sets the SynchronizationContext for the asynchronous operation.

Public methodStatic memberSupported by Silverlight for Windows PhoneSupported by Xbox 360CreateOperationReturns an AsyncOperation for tracking the duration of a particular asynchronous operation.

If your class must provide asynchronous behavior according to the Event-based Asynchronous Pattern Overview topic in the .NET Framework documentation, your scenario may also have concurrency management requirements. Among these is the requirement to make sure that event handlers are called on a thread or context that is appropriate for the application model (for example, Windows Forms applications, ASP.NET applications, console applications, Silverlight-based applications, and so on). The AsyncOperationManager provides a convenient way to create a class that runs correctly under all application models supported by the .NET Framework.

The AsyncOperationManager class has one method, CreateOperation, which returns an System.ComponentModel.AsyncOperation object that can be used to track the duration of a particular asynchronous task. The System.ComponentModel.AsyncOperation for a task can be used to alert clients when a task completes. It can also be used to post progress updates and incremental results without terminating the operation.

For more information about how to implement asynchronous classes, see Implementing the Event-based Asynchronous Pattern in the .NET Framework documentation.


The BackgroundWorker class provides a simpler programming model for handling asynchronous behavior. Implementing the event-based asynchronous pattern by using AsyncOperationManager is more complex, but also more flexible, and is necessary if you must be able to communicate between the parent class and the worker class by using custom events. By using BackgroundWorker, you are limited to its ProgressChanged and RunWorkerCompleted events. Depending on the scenario, the AsyncOperationManager pattern may have less overhead than using BackgroundWorker because it is delegate-based and not event-based.

The following code example demonstrates how to use the AsyncOperationManager class to create a class that supports asynchronous operations for any application model. It simulates a long-running data-gathering operation by using Thread.Sleep statements. Progress reports, incremental results, cancellation, and completion notifications are handled by the AsyncOperation class, which makes sure that the client's event handlers are called on the correct thread or context. Asynchronous processing is started when the Load button is clicked. When the operation is complete, the data is shown in a DataGrid control. After it starts, the operation's progress is shown in a box below the buttons, the Load button is disabled, and the Cancel button is enabled.

The MainPage class represents the user interface and performs the following functions:

  • Calls the ReturnRows method of the PersonDataSource class asynchronously.

  • Disables the Load button and enables the Cancel button when the process starts.

  • Updates the progress reporting text boxes during the load process.

  • Provides a status message when the operation ends.

The Person class shows the format of the data that is returned by the PersonDataSource class and displayed by the DataGrid. The PersonDataSource class supports asynchronous processing for the simulated long-running data-gathering operation.

<!-- NOTE: 
  By convention, the sdk prefix indicates a URI-based XAML namespace declaration 
  for Silverlight SDK client libraries. This namespace declaration is valid for 
  Silverlight 4 only. In Silverlight 3, you must use individual XAML namespace 
  declarations for each CLR assembly and namespace combination outside the scope 
  of the default Silverlight XAML namespace. For more information, see the help 
  topic "Prefixes and Mappings for Silverlight Libraries". 
<UserControl x:Class="AsyncOperationManagerExample.MainPage"
    Width="400" Height="500">
    <StackPanel x:Name="LayoutRoot" Background="White">
        <sdk:DataGrid x:Name="dg" 
                <sdk:DataGridTextColumn Header="Name" 
                                          Binding="{Binding Name}" />
                <sdk:DataGridTextColumn Header="Age" 
                                          Binding="{Binding Age}" />
                <sdk:DataGridTextColumn Header="Birth Date" 
                                          Binding="{Binding Birthday}" />
                <sdk:DataGridTextColumn Header="Available" 
                                          Binding="{Binding Available}" />
        <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
            <Button x:Name="loadButton" Content="Load" Width="190"
                Margin="5" Click="loadButton_Click"/>
            <Button x:Name="cancelButton" Content="Cancel" Width="190" 
                Margin="5" Click="cancelButton_Click" IsEnabled="False"/>
        <Border BorderBrush="Black" 
                BorderThickness="1" Padding="2" Margin="5">
            <StackPanel Orientation="Vertical">
                <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
                    <TextBlock Width="150" TextAlignment="Right"
                               Text="Percent Complete: "/>
                    <TextBlock x:Name="percentCompleteTextBlock" 
                <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
                    <TextBlock Width="150" TextAlignment="Right"
                               Text="Latest Name: " />
                    <TextBlock x:Name="latestNameTextBlock"  
                <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal">
                    <TextBlock Width="150" TextAlignment="Right"
                               Text="Status: " />
                    <TextBlock x:Name="statusMessageBlock"  


Partial Public Class MainPage
    Inherits UserControl

    Private WithEvents pds As New PersonDataSource()

    Public Sub New()
    End Sub

    Private Sub loadButton_Click _
        (ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As RoutedEventArgs)

        ' Start the asynchronous operation.
        ' Change the "10" to "0"
        ' to see what happens when an error happens
        ' in the asynchronous process.
        pds.GetPersonsAsync(10, "Smith", "1")

        loadButton.IsEnabled = False
        cancelButton.IsEnabled = True
        statusMessageBlock.Text = "Loading"
    End Sub

    Private Sub cancelButton_Click _
        (ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As RoutedEventArgs)


        cancelButton.IsEnabled = False
    End Sub

    Private Sub pds_GetPersonsCompletedEvent _
        (ByVal sender As Object, _
         ByVal e As GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs) _
        Handles pds.GetPersonsCompletedEvent

        ' Upon completion, set the status message based on
        ' whether the operation was canceled, errored, or successful.
        If e.Cancelled Then
            statusMessageBlock.Text = "Canceled"
        ElseIf e.Error IsNot Nothing Then
            statusMessageBlock.Text = "Errored"
            dg.ItemsSource = e.DataListValue
            statusMessageBlock.Text = "Successfully completed"
        End If

    End Sub

    Private Sub pds_GetPersonsProgressChangedEvent _
        (ByVal e As GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs) _
        Handles pds.GetPersonsProgressChangedEvent

        percentCompleteTextBlock.Text = _
        latestNameTextBlock.Text = e.LatestName
    End Sub

End Class

' Format of data retrieved and bound to the GridView control. 
Public Class Person
    Private _Name As String
    Public Property Name() As String
            Return _Name
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As String)
            _Name = value
        End Set
    End Property

    Private _Age As Integer
    Public Property Age() As Integer
            Return _Age
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As Integer)
            _Age = value
        End Set
    End Property

    Private _Birthday As DateTime
    Public Property Birthday() As DateTime
            Return _Birthday
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As DateTime)
            _Birthday = value
        End Set
    End Property

    Private _Available As Boolean
    Public Property Available() As Boolean
            Return _Available
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As Boolean)
            _Available = value
        End Set
    End Property
End Class

Imports System
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Threading

Public Class PersonDataSource
    ' Declare a dictionary to track taskIDs. This will be used 
    ' to ensure that attempts to start the same thread more than 
    ' once will be caught. 
    Private taskIDs As New Dictionary(Of Object, Object)()

    ' Declare delegates and events for Completed and 
    ' ProgressChanged methods for this class's 
    ' GetPersonsAsync method. 
    Public Delegate Sub GetPersonsCompletedEventHandler _
        (ByVal sender As Object, _
         ByVal e As GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs)
    Public Delegate Sub GetPersonsProgressChangedEventHandler _
        (ByVal e As GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs)
    Public Event GetPersonsCompletedEvent _
        As GetPersonsCompletedEventHandler
    Public Event GetPersonsProgressChangedEvent _
        As GetPersonsProgressChangedEventHandler

    ' The GetPersons method will raise ProgressChanged and 
    ' Completed events by using AsyncOperation's Post 
    ' and PostOperationCompleted methods. Declare delegates 
    ' for them here. Methods for use 
    ' with these delegates will be defined below. 
    Private AsyncOpProgressReportHandler As SendOrPostCallback
    Private AsyncOpCompletedHandler As SendOrPostCallback

    ' Constructor 
    Public Sub New()
        ' Attach the Completed and ProgressChanged methods that will 
        ' be called by AsyncOperation to their delegates. 
        AsyncOpProgressReportHandler = New SendOrPostCallback _
            (AddressOf AsyncOpGetPersonsProgressChanged)
        AsyncOpCompletedHandler = New SendOrPostCallback _
            (AddressOf AsyncOpGetPersonsCompleted)
    End Sub

    ' ProgressChanged method for passing in to the 
    ' AsyncOperation Post method. 
    Protected Sub AsyncOpGetPersonsProgressChanged(ByVal state As Object)
        Dim progressChangedEventArgs As GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs _
            = TryCast(state, GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs)
    End Sub

    ' Completed-event method for passing in to the 
    ' AsyncOperation PostOperationCompleted method. 
    Protected Sub AsyncOpGetPersonsCompleted(ByVal eventArgs As Object)
        Dim completedEventArgs As GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs _
            = TryCast(eventArgs, GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs)
    End Sub

    ' Raise the ProgressChanged event. 
    Protected Sub OnGetPersonsProgressChanged _
    (ByVal e As GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs)

        RaiseEvent GetPersonsProgressChangedEvent(e)
    End Sub

    ' Raise the Completed event. 
    Protected Sub OnGetPersonsCompleted _
        (ByVal e As GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs)

        RaiseEvent GetPersonsCompletedEvent(Me, e)
    End Sub

    ' The worker process for data retrieval. Simulates a 
    ' time-consuming operation by using Thread.Sleep. 
    Public Sub GetPersons(ByVal itemsCount As Integer, _
                          ByVal Name As String, _
                          ByVal asyncOperation As AsyncOperation)

        Dim canceled As Boolean = False
        Dim exception As Exception = Nothing

        Dim personList As New List(Of Person)()

        Dim i As Integer = 1
        While i <= itemsCount OrElse itemsCount = 0
            Dim currentName As String = Name + CStr(i)
            personList.Add(New Person() With { _
                    .Name = currentName, _
                    .Age = i, _
                    .Birthday = DateTime.Today.AddYears(-i), _
                    .Available = (i Mod 2 = 0) _

            ' Delay 1 second for each person. 

            ' Report progress by using AsyncOperation to raise 
            ' the ProgressChanged event. Pass in itemsCount of 
            ' zero to see effect of catching an exception. 
            Dim percentComplete As Integer
                percentComplete = Convert.ToInt32(i * 100 / itemsCount)
            Catch ex As Exception
                exception = ex
                Exit While
            End Try

            Dim progressChangedEventArgs As _
                New GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs _
                    (currentName, _
                     percentComplete, _

            asyncOperation.Post _
                (AsyncOpProgressReportHandler, progressChangedEventArgs)

            If GetPersonsCheckForCancellation _
                (asyncOperation.UserSuppliedState) Then
                canceled = True
                Exit While
            End If

            i += 1
        End While

        ' Report completion by raising the Completed event. 
        Dim completedEventArgs As _
            New GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs _
                (personList, _
                 exception, _
                 canceled, _

        asyncOperation.PostOperationCompleted _
            (AsyncOpCompletedHandler, completedEventArgs)
    End Sub

    ' Start GetPersons as an asynchronous process. 
    Public Sub GetPersonsAsync(ByVal itemsCount As Integer, _
                               ByVal name As String, _
                               ByVal taskId As Object)

        Dim asyncOp As AsyncOperation

        ' First make sure this is not an attempt to start the 
        ' same thread twice. Multiple threads will access the 
        ' taskID Dictionary, so it must be locked to serialize 
        ' access. 
        SyncLock Me
            If taskIDs.ContainsKey(taskId) Then
                Throw New ArgumentException _
                    ("Task ID already exists", "taskID")
            End If

            ' Create a new AsyncOperation object 
            ' and put it in the taskID Dictionary. 
            asyncOp = AsyncOperationManager.CreateOperation(taskId)
            taskIDs(taskId) = asyncOp
        End SyncLock

        ' Start the asynchronous process. 
        Dim myThread As New Thread(AddressOf StartThread)
        myThread.Start(New ThreadStartParms With _
             {.ItemsCount = itemsCount, .Name = name, .AsyncOp = asyncOp})

    End Sub

    Private Sub StartThread(ByVal parms As ThreadStartParms)
        GetPersons(parms.ItemsCount, parms.Name, parms.AsyncOp)
    End Sub

    ' Flag an operation for cancellation by removing it 
    ' from the taskID Dictionary.. 
    Public Sub CancelGetPersonsAsync(ByVal taskId As Object)
        SyncLock Me
        End SyncLock
    End Sub

    ' Check if the asynchronous operation has been canceled. 
    Public Function GetPersonsCheckForCancellation(ByVal taskId As Object) As Boolean
        SyncLock Me
            ' If the taskID is not in the taskID Dictionary, 
            ' the process has been canceled. 
            Return Not taskIDs.ContainsKey(taskId)
        End SyncLock
    End Function
End Class

' Define a Thread.Start parameters class allowing 
' parameters to be sent in to the Thread.Start method. 
Public Class ThreadStartParms
    Private _itemsCount As Integer
    Public Property ItemsCount() As Integer
            Return _itemsCount
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As Integer)
            _itemsCount = value
        End Set
    End Property

    Private _name As String
    Public Property Name() As String
            Return _name
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As String)
            _name = value
        End Set
    End Property

    Private _asyncOp As AsyncOperation
    Public Property AsyncOp() As AsyncOperation
            Return _asyncOp
        End Get
        Set(ByVal value As AsyncOperation)
            _asyncOp = value
        End Set
    End Property
End Class

' Define a custom Completed-event arguments class allowing 
' the data gathered by GetPersons to be returned. 
Public Class GetPersonsCompletedEventArgs
    Inherits AsyncCompletedEventArgs
    Private m_dataListValue As List(Of Person)
    Public Sub New _
        (ByVal dataList As List(Of Person), _
         ByVal exception As Exception, _
         ByVal cancelled As Boolean, _
         ByVal userState As Object)

        MyBase.New(exception, cancelled, userState)
        m_dataListValue = dataList
    End Sub

    Public ReadOnly Property DataListValue() As List(Of Person)
            Return m_dataListValue
        End Get
    End Property
End Class

' Define a custom ProgressChanged arguments class allowing last 
' name loaded as well as progress percentage to be returned. 
Public Class GetPersonsProgressChangedEventArgs
    Inherits ProgressChangedEventArgs
    Private latestNameValue As String = String.Empty
    Public Sub New _
        (ByVal latestName As String, _
         ByVal progressPercentage As Integer, _
         ByVal userState As Object)

        MyBase.New(progressPercentage, userState)
        latestNameValue = latestName
    End Sub

    Public ReadOnly Property LatestName() As String
            Return latestNameValue
        End Get
    End Property
End Class


Supported in: 5, 4, 3

Silverlight for Windows Phone

Supported in: Windows Phone OS 7.1, Windows Phone OS 7.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: Xbox 360, Windows Phone OS 7.0

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

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