DAO: See Data Access Objects (DAO).
dashboard: A visual interface that displays a related group of interactive scorecard and report views. It provides views into key measures that are relevant to a business practice or process. Dashboard elements provide capabilities, such as shared filters, that enable users to perform tasks such as highlighting trends, comparing data, and controlling the data that is displayed.
Data Access Objects (DAO): A programming interface that can be used to access and manipulate database objects.
data adapter: Code that submits data to and retrieves data from an external data source. Also referred to as data provider.
data bar: A graphical representation of cell content as a bar graph.
data connection: (1) A link between an application and a data source. Data connections can be used to query and submit data.
data connection library: A SharePoint library that contains a collection of universal data connection (.udcx) and Office data connection (.odc) files.
data consolidation: The process of combining tabular data from various worksheets into a single list.
data culture: The language that is used to specify number formatting for data.
Data Encryption Standard (DES): A specification for encryption of computer data that uses a 56-bit key developed by IBM and adopted by the U.S. government as a standard in 1976. For more information see [FIPS46-3].
data macro: A component that implements application logic and enables recognition of built-in actions and tasks for list items.
data marker: A customizable symbol or shape that identifies a data point on a line, scatter, or radar chart. A data marker can be formatted with various sizes and colors.
data point: (1) An individual value that is plotted in a chart and is represented together with other data points by bars, columns (2), lines, pie or doughnut slices, dots, and various other shapes, which are referred to as data markers. Data markers of the same color constitute a data series.
(2) A representation of a PivotTable item in a PivotTable data field contained in a PivotChart report.
(3) A prototype for the data values that are displayed by a chart series. Data points can be displayed in different shapes depending on the chart type.
data provider: A known data source that is specific to a target type and that provides data to a collector type.
data range: A set of consecutive scale-out partition keys.
data recovery: A process in which files are repaired through error correction or restored from backup media.
data region: A region of a table that encompasses the range of cells that contains the table records. A data region does not include the header row (1), insert row, or total row of a table.
data source: (1) A database, web service, disk, file, or other collection of information from which data is queried or submitted. Supported data sources vary based on application and data provider.
(2) A collection of fields and groups that define and store the data for an InfoPath form. Controls in a form are bound to the fields and groups in the data sources of the form. See also main data source and secondary data source.
(3) A specified data source type, connection string, and credentials, which can be saved separately to a report server and shared among report projects or embedded in a report definition (.rdl) file.
(4) A physical data source.
data source control: An object that can be added to an ASP.NET webpage and encapsulates the necessary logic to connect to a data source, such as a database or XML file, and that can execute queries or other data-access commands. A data source control can in turn provide data to other controls on that page.
data table: (1) A range of cells that is designated to perform what-if analysis for formulas, based on various input values.
(2) A grid that can be added to some charts and contains the numeric data that is plotted in the chart.
data type: (1) A property of a field that defines the kind of data that is stored in the field, or defines the kind of data returned by an expression when the expression is evaluated.
(2) A string that specifies the format of data that a printing application sends to a printer in a print job. Data types include enhanced metafile spool format (EMFSPOOL) and RAW format. For rules governing data type names, see section 188.8.131.52.
data validation: The process of testing the accuracy of data; a set of rules that specify the type and range of data that users can enter.
data validation criteria: See data validation.
database: (1) For the purposes of the Netlogon RPC, a database is a collection of user accounts, machine accounts, aliases, groups, and policies, managed by a component. The database, or the component managing the database, must expose a mechanism to enable Netlogon to gather changes from and apply changes to the database. Additionally, it must export a database serial number in order to track changes for efficient replication.
(2) In Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R), the database maintained by the Microsoft implementation of DFS-R maintains the local version chain vector and one record for each resource that is tracked, including tombstones for deleted resources, such that deletion of files can be propagated in a timely fashion.
database application: A set of objects, including tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and code modules, that are stored in a database structure.
database object: (1) An object such as a table, query, form, report, macro, or module that can be referenced by name in a database, database application, or database project.
(2) A representation of a named set of attribute value pairs that a protocol exposes.
DataClass: A type of MetadataObject that represents a type of a business data object obtained from a line-of-business (LOB) system. Instances of a DataClass have transient identity. DataClasses are contained by LobSystems and Methods.
datagram: A style of communication offered by a network transport protocol where each message is contained within a single network packet. In this style, there is no requirement for establishing a session prior to communication, as opposed to a connection-oriented style.
dataset: (1) A set of multidimensional data that is returned when a multidimensional expression (MDX) SELECT statement is executed. A dataset represents a slice of a cube as defined by the members and axes that are specified in the query.
(2) A named specification that includes a data source definition, a query definition, and optional parameter values, calculated fields, and filtering and collation information as part of a report definition (.rdl) file. An .rdl file can have multiple datasets.
datasheet: A worksheet window that contains the source data for a Microsoft Graph chart object.
date system: A method of calculating calendar dates and times.
datetime: A data type that represents the date and time when a document can be normalized and indexed as a numeric value by a search application. The range and degree of granularity varies according to search application and implementation.
DCOM: See Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM). Can also refer to the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) Remote Protocol Specification [MS-DCOM].
DDE: See Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE).
DDE link: A connection between a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) source document and a destination document.
DDE server: An application that responds to a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) request from a DDE client application.
DDE topic: A general classification of information about a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) server within which multiple, specific data items related to the topic can be exchanged.
declarative workflow: A workflow that is created with XAML (Extensible Application Markup Language) files and does not require precompiled code to run.
decryption: In cryptography, the process of transforming encrypted information to its original clear text form.
deep refinement: A type of query refinement that is based on the aggregation of managed property statistics for all of the results of a search query. See also shallow refinement.
default candidate: A candidate that is designated for streaming media before connectivity checks can be finished. The candidate that is most likely to stream media to the remote endpoint (5) successfully is designated as the default candidate.
default column: The column (2) that is used if no column is specified.
default filter value: The filter value that is used if no filter is specified.
default font face color: The font face color that is applied to a cell if no font face color is specified.
default list view: The view of a SharePoint list that the owner of the list selected to appear when users browse to the list without specifying a view.
default mobile list view: The view of a SharePoint list that the owner of the list selected to appear when users browse to the list by using a mobile device and without specifying a view.
default row: The row that is used if no row is specified.
default sheet: The sheet that is displayed if no sheet is specified.
default sheet tab color: The color that is used for a worksheet tab if no color is specified.
default view: The layout and organization of a document or list that appears automatically when users open that document or display that list.
DefaultValue: A value that is associated with a TypeDescriptor, in the context of a MethodInstance, and is used to instantiate Parameter values when calling native APIs in a line-of-business (LOB) system. The type of the value is consistent with the data type represented by the TypeDescriptor.
defined name: A word or string of characters in a formula that represents a cell, range of cells, formula, or constant value.
delegate: A user or resource that has permissions to act on behalf of another user or resource.
delegation: (1) A model of communication between server components in which the caller can make requests on behalf of a user by passing a service ticket that was retrieved for that user.
delegator: A user or resource for which another user or resource has permission to act on its behalf.
delete crawl: A process that is started automatically after a content source or start address deletion occurs and removes associated items from a search catalog.
DeletedIdEnumerator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve EntityInstanceIds of EntityInstances that were deleted from a line-of-business (LOB) system after the specified time.
deleted-object: An object that has been deleted, but remains in storage until a configured amount of time (the deleted-object lifetime) has passed, after which the object is transformed to a recycled-object. Unlike a recycled-object or a tombstone, a deleted-object maintains virtually all the state of the object before deletion, and may be undeleted without loss of information. Deleted-objects exist only when the Recycle Binoptional feature is enabled.
deleted-object lifetime: The time period that a deleted-object is kept in storage before it is transformed into a recycled-object.
Deleter: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to delete an EntityInstance with a specified EntityInstanceId.
delta: (1) A unit of transactional consistency in a shared space. A delta can contain one or more commands.
(2) One of a set of possible changes that can be made to a database.
delta address book file: An address book file that contains only the differences between two complete address book files. Differences can include changed values, added objects, and deleted objects.
delta import: A step in the staging process that reads in only the changes that have occurred in a connected data source since the last import.
delta synchronization: A staging step that processes only those objects that have pending imports.
dependent lookup field: A lookup field that displays additional data for an item that is returned by a primary lookup field. See also primary lookup field.
deployment: (1) A collection of protocol clients and protocol servers (2) that belong to the same enterprise.
deployment manifest: An XML file that describes the identity and version of a deployment package (2).
deployment package: (1) A collection of files that represent a serialized snapshot of data. A deployment package is stored as XML files that describe the deployment objects and their relationships, and a binary file for each object. Optionally, the resulting set of files can be compressed into one or more files in the compressed PRIME data format (CMP).
(2) A collection of files that can be used to deploy and manage customizations, such as add-ins, to a computer. It consists of an application manifest, a deployment manifest, and related package files.
deprecated term: A term that persists in the term store but cannot be used in future applications of metadata.
derived transport address: An address that derives from a local transport address. It is obtained by using protocols such as Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN) and Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN). When a packet is sent to a derived transport address it arrives at the local transport address from which it is derived.
descendant: A member that is below the current member in a hierarchy.
descendant content type: Any content type that inherits settings from another content type.
descending order: A sort order in which text strings are arranged in reverse alphabetical order, numerical values are arranged from largest to smallest, and dates and times are arranged from newest to oldest.
deserialize: See unmarshal (1).
designer: A visual design surface for adding and arranging controls on a user form and writing code for those controls.
destination: A network entry in the routing table represented by a network address and a network mask.
destination server: (1) A protocol server to which a file is copied.
device: (1) A client or server computer that uses a device URL to identify itself as an endpoint (5) for synchronizing account data.
(2) Any peripheral or part of a computer system that can send or receive data.
(3) The Devices Profile for Web Services (DPWS) term for a special instance of a service that is discoverable and contains other services with metadata describing those services.
(4) A logical device and/or a container that may embed other logical devices and that embeds one or more services and advertises its presence on network(s). For more information, see [UPNPARCH1.1] sections 1 and 2.
(5) A device can be any UPnP-enabled device.
device key: A secret key that is shared between a relay server and a client device for device authentication (2).
device URL: A unique identifier for a client device, as described in [RFC3986].
device-independent bitmap (DIB): (1) A file format that was designed to help ensure that bitmap graphics that were created by using one application can be loaded and displayed in another application exactly as they appeared in the originating application.
(2) A container for bitmapped graphics, which specifies characteristics of the bitmap such that it can be created using one application and loaded and displayed in another application, while retaining an identical appearance.
DFS-R: A service that keeps DFS and SYSVOL folders in sync automatically. DFS-R is a state-based, multimaster replication system that supports replication scheduling and bandwidth throttling. This is a rewrite and new version of FRS. For more information, see [MS-FRS2].
DHCP client: The remote procedure call (RPC)clients that use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Server Management Protocol (DHCPM) to configure, manage, and monitor the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server.
diagonal-down: A cell border formatting that displays a line diagonally from the top left corner of a cell to the bottom right corner.
diagonal-up: A cell border formatting that displays a line diagonally from the bottom left corner of a cell to the top right corner.
dial string: The numbers, symbols, and pauses that users enter to place a phone call. It is consumed by one or more network entities and understood in the context of the configuration of those entities. It is used to generate an address-of-record or identifier to route a call.
dialog: (1) A peer-to-peer Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) relationship that exists between two user agents and persists for a period of time. A dialog is established by SIP messages, such as a 2xx response to an INVITE request, and is identified by a call identifier, a local tag, and a remote tag.
(2) The exchange of messages between client and server over a given SMB connection.
(3) A peer-to-peer SIP relationship between two user agents that persists for some time. A dialog is established by SIP messages (for example, a 2xx response to an INVITE request). A dialog is identified by a call identifier, a local tag, and a remote tag.
dialog sheet: A single logical container that is used to create a custom dialog box.
dictionary: A collection of key/value pairs. Each pair consists of a unique key and an associated value. Values in the dictionary are retrieved by providing a key for which the dictionary returns the associated value.
digest: The fixed-length output string from a one-way hash function that takes a variable-length input string and is probabilistically unique for every different input string. Also a cryptographic checksum of a data (octet) stream.
digital certificate: See the "digital certificate definition standard," as described in [X509].
digital certificate store: A database that stores a variety of digital certificates and information about those certificates, including attributes and constraints.
digital signature: (1) A message authenticator that is typically derived from a cryptographic operation by using an asymmetric algorithm and private key. When a symmetric algorithm is used for this purpose, the authenticator is typically referred to as a Message Authentication Code (MAC).
(2) A value that is generated by using a digital signature algorithm, taking as input a private key and an arbitrary-length string, such that a specific verification algorithm is satisfied by the value, the input string, and the public key corresponding to the input private key.
(3) A message authenticator that is typically derived from a cryptographic operation using an asymmetric algorithm and private key. When a symmetric algorithm is used for this purpose, the authenticator is typically called a Message Authentication Code (MAC). In some contexts, the term digital signature is used to refer to either type of authenticator; however, in this Windows Client Certificate Enrollment Protocol, the term digital signature is used only for authenticators created by asymmetric algorithms. For more information, see [SCHNEIER] chapters 2 and 20.
dimension: (1) A structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels) that describe data in a fact table. These categories typically describe a similar set of members upon which the user bases an analysis.
(2) A categorization of data in rows or columns (2) in an Excel worksheet.
(3) A structural attribute of a cube, which is an organized hierarchy of categories (levels) that describe data in the fact table.
directory: (1) The database that stores information about objects such as users, groups, computers, printers, and the directory service that makes this information available to users and applications.
(2) A forest.
directory name: A segment of a store-relative URL that refers to a directory. A directory name is everything that appears before the last slash in a store-relative form URL.
(3) An Active Directoryobject, which is a specialization of the "object" concept that is described in [MS-ADTS] section 1 or [MS-DRSR] section 1, Introduction, under Pervasive Concepts. An Active Directoryobject can be identified by the objectGUID attribute of a dsname according to the matching rules defined in [MS-DRSR] section 5.50, DSNAME. The parent-identifying attribute (not exposed as an LDAPattribute) is parent. Active Directoryobjects are similar to LDAPentries, as defined in [RFC2251]; the differences are specified in [MS-ADTS] section 184.108.40.206.1.
directory partition: A synonym for Active Directory partition and naming context (NC) replica.
directory service (DS): (1) A service that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network shares, and that allows network administrators to manage users' access to the shares. See also Active Directory.
(2) An entity that maintains a collection of objects. These objects can be remotely manipulated either by the Message Queuing (MSMQ): Directory Service Protocol, as specified in [MS-MQDS], or by the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (v3), as specified in [RFC2251].
(3) A distributed data storage system that allows computers connected to a network to store, edit, and retrieve information.
DirectPlay: A network communication library included with the Microsoft DirectX application programming interfaces. DirectPlay is a high-level software interface between applications and communication services that makes it easy to connect games over the Internet, a modem link, or a network.
DirectPlay 4: A programming library that implements the IDirectPlay4 programming interface. DirectPlay 4 provides peer-to-peer session-layer services to applications, including session lifetime management, data management, and media abstraction. DirectPlay 4 first shipped with the DirectX 6 multimedia toolkit. Later versions continued to ship up to, and including, DirectX 9. DirectPlay 4 was subsequently deprecated. The DirectPlay 4 DLL continues to ship in current versions of Windows operating systems, but the development library is no longer shipping in Microsoft development tools and software development kits (SDKs).
DirectPlay 8: A programming library that implements the IDirectPlay8 programming interface. DirectPlay 8 provides peer-to-peer session-layer services to applications, including session lifetime management, data management, and media abstraction. DirectPlay 8 first shipped with the DirectX 8 software development toolkit. Later versions continued to ship up to, and including, DirectX 9. DirectPlay 8 was subsequently deprecated. The DirectPlay 8 DLL continues to ship in current versions of Windows operating systems, but the development library is no longer shipping in Microsoft development tools and Software Development Kits (SDKs).
DirectX: Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms.
DirectX Diagnostic (DXDiag): DXDiag.exe is an application that uses the DirectPlay DXDiag Usage Protocol [MS-DPDX] traffic.
dirty: The condition of an entity, such as a component or a file, that indicates that the entity or properties of the entity were changed after the entity was last saved.
Disassociator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to remove an association between a specified destination EntityInstance and a single specified EntityInstance for each of the sources of a specified Association.
discovery center: See discovery console.
discovery console: A site collection that contains multiple discovery cases.
discovery source: A repository of documents and other types of content that are relevant to the electronic discovery (eDiscovery) case.
discretionary access control list (DACL): An access control list (ACL) that is controlled by the owner of an object and that specifies the access particular users or groups can have to the object.
discussion board: A list in which users can read, post, and reply to messages from other users who are members of the same discussion board.
discussion bookmark: A data structure that is used to store the location of a comment in a web discussion about specific text in a document or on a webpage. See also web discussion.
discussion item: A remark or response that is posted to an online discussion forum such as a newsgroup, SharePoint list, or electronic bulletin board.
disk extent: A contiguous set of one or more disk sectors. A disk extent can be used as a partition or part of a volume, or it can be free, which indicates that it is not in use or that it may be unusable for creating partitions or volumes.
DispID: See IDispatch identifier (DispID).
display folder: A folder into which attributes, measures, calculated members, and key performance indicators can be organized to facilitate browsing.
display form: A form that is used to display a list item.
display name: A text string that is used to identify a principal or other object in the user interface. Also referred to as title.
display units: An axis-formatting option that determines how numeric units are displayed on a value axis.
display URL: The URL that is displayed on a search results page for each search result. This can be different than an access URL. See also access URL.
displayed version: Document version information that is formatted for display in the user interface. The displayed version uses the format MajorVersion.MinorVersion, where MajorVersion is the published version number and MinorVersion is the draft version number, separated by a decimal point. See also major version and minor version.
Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER): A method for encoding a data object based on Basic Encoding Rules (BER) encoding but with additional constraints. DER is used to encode X.509 certificates (2) that need to be digitally signed or to have their signatures verified.
distinguished name (DN): (1) A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, and the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The distinguished name (DN) identifies the object and its location in a tree.
(3) In X.500, the globally unique name string that identifies an entity in an X.500 directory, as described in [X500]. The DN consists of several components and is used in X.509 certificates (2) to identify the subject and issuer principals, as described in [X509].
(4) In Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), an LDAP Distinguished Name, as described in [RFC2251] section 4.1.3. The DN of an object is the DN of its parent, preceded by the RDN of the object. For example: CN=David Thompson, OU=Users, DC=Microsoft, DC=COM. For definitions of CN and OU, see [RFC2256] sections 5.4 and 5.12, respectively.
(5) A name that uniquely identifies an object by using the relative distinguished name (RDN) for the object, plus the names of container objects and domains that contain the object. The DN identifies the object as well as its location in a tree.
(7) In X.500, the globally unique name string that identifies an entity in an X.500 directory, as specified in [X500]. The DN consists of several components and is used in X.509 certificates to identify the subject and issuer principals, as specified in [X509].
(8) In Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), an LDAPDN, as specified in [RFC2251] section 4.1.3. The DN of an object is the DN of its parent, preceded by the RDN of the object. For example: CN=David Thompson,OU=Users,DC=Microsoft,DC=COM. For definitions of CN and OU, see [RFC2256] sections 5.4 and 5.12, respectively.
distributed alignment: A formatting setting that spreads text evenly, both vertically and horizontally, between the edges of a cell, object, or page. Distributed alignment is used primarily with East Asian languages. See also justify distributed.
Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM): The Microsoft Component Object Model (COM) specification that defines how components communicate over networks, as specified in [MS-DCOM].
Distributed File System (DFS): A file system that logically groups physical shared folders located on different servers by transparently connecting them to one or more hierarchical namespaces. DFS also provides fault-tolerance and load-sharing capabilities. DFS refers to the Microsoft DFS available in Windows Server platforms.
Distributed File System Replication (DFS-R): A service that keeps DFS folders in sync automatically. DFS-R is a state-based, multi-master replication system that supports replication scheduling and bandwidth throttling. This is a rewrite and new version of the File Replication Service (FRS). For more information, see [MS-FRS2].
Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF): An industry organization that develops management standards and integration technology for enterprise and Internet environments.
distributed object: A collection of interfaces that enable a protocol client and a protocol server (2) to exchange messages with each other, and to use those messages to connect or disconnect from distributed objects and to call remote methods that have a predefined set of parameters. Each instance of a distributed object has a unique identifier, which ensures that messages are routed to the correct object.
distribution list: (1) A collection of users, computers, contacts, or other groups that is used only for email distribution, and addressed as a single recipient.
(2) An Active Directory object that can contain explicit references only to destinations published in Active Directory; that is, to public queues, queue aliases, and other distribution lists, but not to private and URL-named queues.
DocIDDelta: A number that represents the incremental difference in value between a document identifier and the document identifier that immediately precedes it in a list that is sorted in ascending order.
docked: A condition where a toolbar is attached to the docking area of an application window.
docked location: A specific position of a toolbar within the docking area of an application window.
docking area: An area that is adjacent to the edge of an application window. A toolbar can be moved and attached to a docking area.
(2) The term "document" that is defined in XMD/2.
document flag: A 4-byte unsigned integer bit mask that provides metadata about the document.
document identifier: (1) An integer that uniquely identifies a crawled item.
(2) A GUID that identifies a document.
(3) A string that uniquely identifies an item in a search index.
(4) A unique 32-bit, unsigned integer identifier that is consistent across all queries for each document corresponding to a search result.
document library: A type of list that is a container for documents and folders.
document property: A name/value pair that serves as metadata for a document.
document stream: A byte stream that is associated with a document, such as the content of a file. Some documents do not have document streams.
document template: (1) A file that serves as the basis for new documents.
(2) A file that contains predefined formatting, layout, text, or graphics and that serves as the basis for new documents with a similar design or purpose.
document version: A copy of a list item that has a version number. A document version can be either a historical version or a current version.
Document Workspace site: A SharePoint site that is based on a Document Workspace site template and has a template identifier value of "1". A Document Workspace site is used for planning, posting, and working together on a document or a set of related documents.
domain: (1) A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller (DC) and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication (2) of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members.
(2) A set of users and computers sharing a common namespace and management infrastructure. At least one computer member of the set must act as a domain controller and host a member list that identifies all members of the domain, as well as optionally hosting the Active Directory service. The domain controller provides authentication of members, creating a unit of trust for its members. Each domain has an identifier that is shared among its members. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 220.127.116.11 and [MS-ADTS].
(3) A capture of the data semantics. Example domains include email address, gender, and state.
domain certificate: An X.509 certificate (2) that is associated with a management domain, as described in [X509]. It contains the public key that is used to help secure registration transactions between protocol clients and protocol servers.
domain client in a workstation role: A domain member that offers other services to other domain clients.
domain controller (DC): The service, running on a server, that implements Active Directory, or the server hosting this service. The service hosts the data store for objects and interoperates with other DCs to ensure that a local change to an object replicates correctly across all DCs. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS), the DC contains full NC replicas of the configuration naming context (config NC), schema naming context (schema NC), and one of the domain NCs in its forest. If the AD DSDC is a global catalog server (GC server), it contains partial NC replicas of the remaining domain NCs in its forest. For more information, see [MS-AUTHSOD] section 18.104.22.168.2. When Active Directory is operating as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), several AD LDSDCs can run on one server. When Active Directory is operating as AD DS, only one AD DSDC can run on one server. However, several AD LDSDCs can coexist with one AD DSDC on one server. The AD LDSDC contains full NC replicas of the config NC and the schema NC in its forest.
domain controller server: A domain member, which can be a client or a server that offers other services to its clients. When the domain client acts as a supplicant to another domain client, the supplicant is referred to as a domain client in a workstation role and the latter as a domain client in a server role.
domain group: A container for security and distribution groups. A domain group can also contain other domain groups.
domain local group: An Active Directorygroup (1) that allows user objects, global groups, and universal groups from any domain as members. It also allows other domain local groups from within its domain as members. A group object g is a domain local group if and only if GROUP_TYPE_RESOURCE_GROUP is present in g!groupType. A security-enabled domain local group is valid for inclusion within access control lists (ACLs) from its own domain. If a domain is in mixed mode, then a security-enabled domain local group in that domain allows only user objects as members.
domain member (member machine): A machine that is joined to a domain by sharing a secret between the machine and the domain.
domain name: (1) The name given by an administrator to a collection of networked computers that share a common directory. Part of the domain naming service naming structure, domain names consist of a sequence of name labels separated by periods.
(2) A name with a structure indicated by dots.
(3) A domain name (2) used by the Domain Name System (DNS).
(4) A domain name (3) or a NetBIOS name that identifies a domain.
Domain Name System (DNS): A hierarchical, distributed database that contains mappings of domain names (1) to various types of data, such as IP addresses. DNS enables the location of computers and services by user-friendly names, and it also enables the discovery of other information stored in the database.
domain naming context (domain NC): (1) A partition of the directory that contains information about the domain and is replicated with other domain controllers (DCs) in the same domain.
(2) A naming context (NC) whose replicas are able to contain security principal objects. No other NC replica can contain security principal objects. The distinguished name (DN) of a domain NC takes the form “dc=n1,dc=n2, ... dc=nk” where each ni satisfies the syntactic requirements of a DNS name component. For more information, see [RFC1034]. Such a DN corresponds to the domain naming service name: “n1.n2. ... .nk”. This is the domain naming service name of the domain NC. Domain NCs appear in the global catalog (GC). A forest has one or more domain NCs. The root of a domain NC is an object of class domainDns.
(3) A specific type of naming context (NC) that represents a domain. A domain NC can contain security principal objects; no other type of NC can contain security principal objects. Domain NCs appear in the global catalog (GC). A domain NC is hosted by one or more domain controllers (DCs) operating as AD DS. In AD DS, a forest has one or more domain NCs. The root of a domain NC is an object of class domainDNS; for directory replication [MS-DRSR], see domainDNS. A domain NC cannot exist in AD LDS.
domain user: A user with an account in the domain's user account database.
domainDNS: A specific object class. The root of a domain NC or an application NC is an object of class domainDNS. The DN of such an object takes the form dc=n1,dc=n2, ... dc=nk, where each ni satisfies the syntactic requirements of a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) component (for more information, see [RFC1034]). Such a DN corresponds to the FQDN n1.n2. ... .nk. This is the FQDN of the NC, and it allows replicas of the NC to be located by using DNS.
double accounting: An underline style that places two lines beneath the formatted text. Double accounting is frequently used to indicate totals.
down bar: See up-down bar.
draft: A version of a document or list item that does not have a publishing level of "Published" or "Checked Out".
drawing: A collection of drawing objects, such as shapes, curves, or WordArt, that are viewed together as a single image.
drawing canvas: See canvas and drawing space.
drawing group: A collection of images that are designated by the user as a single group of images and manipulated as a single drawing object.
drawing object: A shape, curve, line, WordArt, or other type of graphical object that can be inserted into a document.
drawing space: An area of the absolute space that is being drawn, after all of the rotation and scaling is complete. For example, a shadow is typically drawn relative to a shape, and is therefore in the drawing space of that shape. The value for drawing space is expressed in English Metric Units (EMUs). See also absolute space.
drill indicator: A symbol that indicates whether a PivotTable member can be expanded or collapsed.
drilldown: A technique that is used to navigate hierarchical data, starting from general data and moving to increasingly finer levels of detail.
drillthrough: (1) A query that is used to retrieve individual records that were used to calculate an aggregate value.
(2) A means in a client application to view a more detailed view of a subset of the data after clicking on a displayed instance of data. The displayed instance of data contains an action with a drillthrough link, and clicking on the link executes a semantic query that returns more detailed results.
(3) The OLAP capability to go beyond browsing the data in a cube and to drill into the original data store.
drive: (1) See volume.
drive letter: (1) One of the 26 alphabetical characters A-Z, in uppercase or lowercase, that is assigned to a volume. Drive letters serve as a namespace through which data on the volume can be accessed. A volume with a drive letter can be referred to with the drive letter followed by a colon (for example, C:).
(2) A letter from the English character set (A, B, C...Z) that is assigned to a removable storage device that is physically connected to the client device and logically connected to a session that the client connects to using the RDP protocol.
drop lines: A set of supplemental lines on an area chart or a line chart. Drop lines increase the legibility of a chart by connecting each data point in a series to the category axis.
dsname: (1) A tuple that contains between one and three identifiers for an object. The term dsname does not stand for anything. The possible identifiers are the object's GUID (attribute objectGuid), security identifier (SID) (attribute objectSid), and distinguished name (DN) (attribute distinguishedName). A dsname can appear in a protocol message and as an attribute value (for example, a value of an attribute with syntax Object(DS-DN)). Given a DSName, an object can be identified within a set of NC replicas according to the matching rules defined in [MS-DRSR] section 5.49.
(2) A dsname is a field 3-tuple<guid: GUID, sid: security identifier (SID), dn: distinguished name (DN)>. A dsname can appear in a protocol message and as a value of an attribute. In either context, it identifies an object. If all three fields are null, the dsname is null. As a value of an attribute, a dsname always contains a non-null GUID and DN, and sometimes contains a non-null SID. Such a dsname n refers to the unique object o such that o.objectGuid = n.guid. The SID and DN are not used for identification in this case. As a value within a protocol message, a non-null dsname n refers to: if n.guid ≠ null, the unique object o such that o.objectGuid = n.guid (failing if no such object); otherwise if n.dn ≠ null, the unique object o such that o.distinguishedName = n.dn (failing if no such object); otherwise the unique object o such that o.objectSid = n.sid. Note that the SID is used only if no other part of the dsname is specified. If o is an object, the function dsname(o) equals [o.objectGuid, o.objectSid, o.distinguishedName].
dual interface: An interface that can act either as a dispinterface or a Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) interface.
dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF): In telephony systems, a signaling system in which each digit is associated with two specific frequencies. This system typically is associated with touch-tone keypads for telephones.
duplicate: A search result that is identified as having identical or near identical content.
duplicate result removal: An operation to compare the similarity of items and remove duplicates from search results.
Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE): An inter-process communication method that is featured in Windows. DDE allows two or more applications that are running simultaneously to exchange data and commands.
dynamic endpoint: A network-specific server address that is requested and assigned at run time. For more information, see [C706].
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP): A protocol that provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP network, as described in [RFC2131].
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) client: An Internet host using DHCP to obtain configuration parameters such as network addresses.
Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language (DHTML): An extension of the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that allows applications to change styles and attributes of page elements (objects) and to replace existing elements (objects) with new ones.
Dynamic Link Library (DLL): A set of executable routines that typically serve a specific function and are stored separately as a file with a .dll file name extension. The routines are loaded only when they are needed by the application that calls them.
dynamic object: An object with a time-to-die (attribute msDS-Entry-Time-To-Die). The directory service garbage-collects a dynamic object immediately after its time-to-die has passed. The constructed attribute entryTTL gives a dynamic object's current time-to-live, that is, the difference between the current time and msDS-Entry-Time-To-Die. For more information, see [RFC2589].
dynamic rank: A rank component that indicates how well query text matches an indexed item. See also static rank.
dynamic teaser: See hit highlighted summary.
dynamic web template: An HTML-based master copy of a page that contains settings, formatting, and elements such as text, graphics, page layout, styles, and regions of a page that can be modified. Dynamic web templates have a .dwt file name extension.