ROM Image Creation
ROM contains uncompressed files that execute in place (XIP), including the system executables and DLLs. These files start at the beginning of a page boundary. ROM also contains miscellaneous files that are used by these applications, such as fonts, waveform audio files (.wav), and bitmaps.
Files are divided into sections and placed into ROM. The following table shows these sections.
|.pdata||Debugging and exception processing information for each function in the code section|
|.CRT||Special section — C++ construct|
|.KDATA||Special section — present in the kernel (Nk.exe) only|
Most miscellaneous files are compressed (with the exception of a few fonts). Code and read-only sections for the executables and DLLs are uncompressed to enable XIP. The read-write sections are compressed because they are destined for RAM, where they will be uncompressed as needed.
To save space, many small data sections, referred to as Filler sections (miscellaneous files and compressed read-write sections), are placed into holes in memory. A hole is the space remaining on the last page after a code or read-only memory section is placed in ROM. Because the size and number of executables and DLLs contained in ROM affects the size of the available holes, the ability to identify Filler sections is significant.
You can see exactly how the files are placed in ROM by inspecting the output of Romimage.exe. The numbers in the following code examples were obtained from the log files for Romimage.exe.
Note Whenever Romimage.exe detects overlapped records, it fails and displays an error message.
The following code example shows the first few lines of output from a typical Romimage.exe session, which lists the program banner, the page size, and the beginning of the MODULES Section.
Windows CE ROM Image Builder v4.0 Copyright (c) 1995-2001 Microsoft Corporation Copying f:\...\x86\debug\kernkitlprof.exe to f:\...\x86\debug\nk.exe for debugger Copying f:\...\x86\debug\com_card.dll to f:\...\x86\debug\serial.dll for debugger Copying f:\...\x86\debug\i82365.dll to f:\...\x86\debug\pcmcia.dll for debugger Copying f:\...\x86\debug\kbd8042xtmsengus1.dll to f:\...\x86\debug\kbdmouse.dll for debugger MODULES Section Module Section Start Length psize vsize Filler ------------ -------- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------ nk.exe .text 8c600400h 116736 116736 116268 nk.exe .pdata 8c61cc00h 4096 4096 3864 coredll.dll .text 8c61dc00h 119808 119296 118987 coredll.dll .rsrc 8c63b000h 1024 1024 528 ...
The first entry in the MODULES Section, nk.exe, has a size of 116,268 = 0x1c62c bytes. This actual size is rounded up to the next 1,024-byte page boundary (116,736 = 0x1c800) and placed in ROM. This leaves a hole of 468 bytes available for miscellaneous files. Similarly, a hole of 496 bytes is available at address 0x8c63b210, at the end of the last page that contains the Coredll.dll .rsrc section.
The following code example shows how, after placing all the .text (code) sections, Romimage.exe begins placing the data sections that are smaller than a page into these holes.
Module Section Start Length psize vsize Filler ------------ -------- --------- ------- ------- ------- ------ ... coredll.dll .data 8c61ca2ch 4 4 200 FILLER coredll.dll .pdata 8cb32800h 4868 4866 8064 filesys.exe .data 8cb33b04h 12236 12234 21376 device.exe .pdata 8c63b210h 341 341 424 FILLER fatfs.dll .data 8c659c84h 366 366 504 FILLER fatfs.dll .pdata 8cb3ce0ch 1324 1322 1624 shell.exe .data 8cb3d338h 1608 1605 2864 filesys.exe .pdata 8cb36ad0h 2152 2149 2640 gwes.exe .data 8cb37338h 10796 10794 17828 gwes.exe .pdata 8cb39d64h 12456 12456 15768 device.exe .data 8c61ca30h 213 213 276 FILLER shell.exe .pdata 8c61cb05h 183 183 208 FILLER ...
The first .data section for Coredll.dll is 4 bytes and is placed at the first available hole, 0x8c600400 + 0x1c62c = 0x8c61ca2c. It uses 4 bytes, moving the next filler address to 0x8c61ca30, thus shrinking the hole to 464 bytes.
The next .data section that is smaller than a page is for Device.exe and requires 213 = 0xd5 bytes, which is also small enough to fit into the remaining space in this first hole. When it is placed there, the address changes to 0x8c61cb05, thus shrinking the hole to 251 bytes.
device.exe .data 8c61ca30h 213 213 276 FILLER
The .pdata section for Device.exe, 341 bytes, is larger than the remaining space in this hole, so it is placed into another hole. This hole follows the last page of the Coredll.dll rsrc section, starting at 0x8c63b210.
device.exe .pdata 8c63b210h 341 341 424 FILLER
Shell.exe (183 bytes) is the next .data or .pdata section that is smaller than the remaining size of 251 bytes in the first hole. The .pdata section for the Debug shell (Shell.exe) is placed in the first hole at that next available address, 0x8c61cb05.
shell.exe .pdata 8c61cb05h 183 183 208 FILLER
Romimage.exe continues placing the small data sections into holes until all the sections have been placed. The Romimage.exe report lists any remaining holes. The following Romimage.exe report example lists the unfilled ROM holes:
Unfilled ROM Holes (Address,Length): 8c9cfbf8h 8 8caef3f8h 8 8cb253f8h 8 8cb2bff8h 8 8c769bf9h 7 8c8d4ffah 6 8c8f37fah 6 8c98dffah 6 8cb16ffah 6 8cb1d7fah 6 8cb327fah 6 8c61dbfbh 5 8c6e6ffbh 5 8c763ffbh 5 8c855ffbh 5 8c935bfbh 5 8c9877fbh 5 8c7537fch 4 8c765bfch 4 8c7bcffch 4 8c7d3bfch 4 8c80dbfch 4 8c82f3fch 4 8c8f27fch 4 8c938ffch 4 8c9c17fch 4 8c9e23fch 4 8ca6e7fch 4 8cacfbfch 4 8cb20bfch 4 8c61cbfdh 3 8c659ffdh 3 8c6e13fdh 3 8c6e23fdh 3 8c6e87fdh 3 8c6ee7fdh 3 8c63b3feh 2 8c74fffeh 2 8c785ffeh 2 8c7b8ffeh 2 8c7c23feh 2 8c9717feh 2 8c99d7feh 2 8cb09ffeh 2 8cb227feh 2 8c63afffh 1 8c65a3ffh 1 8c6ea7ffh 1 8c788fffh 1 8c793fffh 1 8c9727ffh 1 8c9a8bffh 1 8ca83bffh 1 8cacf7ffh 1 8cb047ffh 1 8cb0bfffh 1
The number of executables and DLLs contained in ROM can change between different configurations. This can affect the total amount of memory required.
To determine ROM use by each module, calculate the sum of all sections listed in the Romimage.exe output for that moduleexcluding those sections that are listed as Filler. Because the filler is inserted into the available holes, it does not increase the memory requirement for that module.
Last updated on Friday, October 08, 2004
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