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Supporting Tokens

The Supporting Tokens sample demonstrates how to add additional tokens to a message that uses WS-Security. The example adds an X.509 binary security token in addition to a username security token. The token is passed in a WS-Security message header from the client to the service and part of the message is signed with the private key associated with the X.509 security token to prove the possession of the X.509 certificate to the receiver. This is useful in the case when there is a requirement to have multiple claims associated with a message to authenticate or authorize the sender. The service implements a contract that defines a request-reply communication pattern.

Demonstrates

The sample demonstrates:

  • How a client can pass additional security tokens to a service.

  • How the server can access claims associated with additional security tokens.

  • How the server's X.509 certificate is used to protect the symmetric key used for message encryption and signature.

ms751480.note(en-us,VS.100).gifNote:
The setup procedure and build instructions for this sample are located at the end of this topic.

Client Authenticates with Username Token and Supporting X.509 Security Token

The service exposes a single endpoint for communicating that is programmatically created using the BindingHelper and EchoServiceHost classes. The endpoint consists of an address, a binding, and a contract. The binding is configured with a custom binding using SymmetricSecurityBindingElement and HttpTransportBindingElement. This sample sets the SymmetricSecurityBindingElement to use a service X.509 certificate to protect the symmetric key during transmission and to pass a UserNameToken along with the supporting X509SecurityToken in a WS-Security message header. The symmetric key is used to encrypt the message body and the username security token. The supporting token is passed as an additional binary security token in the WS-Security message header. The authenticity of the supporting token is proved by signing part of the message with the private key associated with the supporting X.509 security token.

        public static Binding CreateMultiFactorAuthenticationBinding()
        {
            HttpTransportBindingElement httpTransport = new HttpTransportBindingElement();

            // the message security binding element will be configured to require 2 tokens:
            // 1) A username-password encrypted with the service token
            // 2) A client certificate used to sign the message
            
            // Instantiate a binding element that will require the username/password token in the message (encrypted with the server cert)
            SymmetricSecurityBindingElement messageSecurity = SecurityBindingElement.CreateUserNameForCertificateBindingElement();

            // Create supporting token parameters for the client X509 certificate.
            X509SecurityTokenParameters clientX509SupportingTokenParameters = new X509SecurityTokenParameters();
            // Specify that the supporting token is passed in message send by the client to the service
            clientX509SupportingTokenParameters.InclusionMode = SecurityTokenInclusionMode.AlwaysToRecipient;
            // Turn off derived keys
            clientX509SupportingTokenParameters.RequireDerivedKeys = false;
            // Augment the binding element to require the client's X509 certificate as an endorsing token in the message
            messageSecurity.EndpointSupportingTokenParameters.Endorsing.Add(clientX509SupportingTokenParameters);

            // Create a CustomBinding based on the constructed security binding element.
            return new CustomBinding(messageSecurity, httpTransport);
        }

The behavior specifies the service credentials that are to be used for client authentication and also information about the service X.509 certificate. The sample uses CN=localhost as a subject name in the service X.509 certificate.

override protected void InitializeRuntime()
{
    // Extract the ServiceCredentials behavior or create one.
    ServiceCredentials serviceCredentials = 
        this.Description.Behaviors.Find<ServiceCredentials>();
    if (serviceCredentials == null)
    {
        serviceCredentials = new ServiceCredentials();
        this.Description.Behaviors.Add(serviceCredentials);
    }

    // Set the service certificate
    serviceCredentials.ServiceCertificate.SetCertificate(
                                       "CN=localhost");

/*
Setting the CertificateValidationMode to PeerOrChainTrust means that if the certificate is in the Trusted People store, then it will be trusted without performing a validation of the certificate's issuer chain. This setting is used here for convenience so that the sample can be run without having to have certificates issued by a certificate authority (CA).
This setting is less secure than the default, ChainTrust. The security implications of this setting should be carefully considered before using PeerOrChainTrust in production code.
*/
    serviceCredentials.ClientCertificate.Authentication.CertificateValidationMode = X509CertificateValidationMode.PeerOrChainTrust;

    // Create the custom binding and add an endpoint to the service.
    Binding multipleTokensBinding =
         BindingHelper.CreateMultiFactorAuthenticationBinding();
    this.AddServiceEndpoint(typeof(IEchoService), 
                          multipleTokensBinding, string.Empty);
    base.InitializeRuntime();
}

Service code:

[ServiceBehavior(IncludeExceptionDetailInFaults = true)]
public class EchoService : IEchoService
{
    public string Echo()
    {
        string userName;
        string certificateSubjectName;
        GetCallerIdentities(
            OperationContext.Current.ServiceSecurityContext, 
            out userName, 
            out certificateSubjectName);
            return String.Format("Hello {0}, {1}", 
                    userName, certificateSubjectName);
    }

    public void Dispose()
    {
    }


    bool TryGetClaimValue<TClaimResource>(ClaimSet claimSet, 
            string claimType, out TClaimResource resourceValue)
            where TClaimResource : class
    {
        resourceValue = default(TClaimResource);
        IEnumerable<Claim> matchingClaims = 
            claimSet.FindClaims(claimType, Rights.PossessProperty);
        if(matchingClaims == null)
            return false;
        IEnumerator<Claim> enumerator = matchingClaims.GetEnumerator();
        if (enumerator.MoveNext())
        {
            resourceValue = 
              (enumerator.Current.Resource == null) ? null : 
              (enumerator.Current.Resource as TClaimResource);
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    // Returns the username and certificate subject name provided by 
    //the client
    void GetCallerIdentities(ServiceSecurityContext 
        callerSecurityContext, 
        out string userName, out string certificateSubjectName)
    {
        userName = null;
        certificateSubjectName = null;

       // Look in all the claimsets in the authorization context
       foreach (ClaimSet claimSet in 
               callerSecurityContext.AuthorizationContext.ClaimSets)
       {
            if (claimSet is WindowsClaimSet)
            {
                // Try to find a Name claim. This will have been 
                // generated from the windows username.
                string tmpName;
                if (TryGetClaimValue<string>(claimSet, ClaimTypes.Name, 
                                                      out tmpName))
                {
                    userName = tmpName;
                }
            }
            else if (claimSet is X509CertificateClaimSet)
            {
                // Try to find an X500DisinguishedName claim. This will 
                // have been generated from the client certificate.
                X500DistinguishedName tmpDistinguishedName;
                if (TryGetClaimValue<X500DistinguishedName>(claimSet, 
                               ClaimTypes.X500DistinguishedName, 
                               out tmpDistinguishedName))
                {
                    certificateSubjectName = tmpDistinguishedName.Name;
                }
            }
        }
    }
} 

The client endpoint is configured in a similar way to the service endpoint. The client uses the same BindingHelper class to create a binding. The rest of the setup is located in Client class. The client sets information about the user name security token, the supporting X.509 security token and information about the service X.509 certificate in the setup code to the client endpoint behaviors collection.

 static void Main()
 {
     // Create the custom binding and an endpoint address for 
     // the service.
     Binding multipleTokensBinding = 
         BindingHelper.CreateMultiFactorAuthenticationBinding();
         EndpointAddress serviceAddress = new EndpointAddress(
         "http://localhost/servicemodelsamples/service.svc");
       ChannelFactory<IEchoService> channelFactory = null;
       IEchoService client = null;

       Console.WriteLine("Username authentication required.");
       Console.WriteLine(
         "Provide a valid machine or domain account. [domain\\user]");
       Console.WriteLine("   Enter username:");
       string username = Console.ReadLine();
       Console.WriteLine("   Enter password:");
       string password = "";
       ConsoleKeyInfo info = Console.ReadKey(true);
       while (info.Key != ConsoleKey.Enter)
       {
           if (info.Key != ConsoleKey.Backspace)
           {
               if (info.KeyChar != '\0')
               {
                   password += info.KeyChar;
                }
                info = Console.ReadKey(true);
            }
            else if (info.Key == ConsoleKey.Backspace)
            {
                if (password != "")
                {
                    password = 
                       password.Substring(0, password.Length - 1);
                }
                info = Console.ReadKey(true);
            }
         }
         for (int i = 0; i < password.Length; i++)
            Console.Write("*");
         Console.WriteLine();
         try
         {
           // Create a proxy with the previously create binding and 
           // endpoint address
              channelFactory = 
                 new ChannelFactory<IEchoService>(
                     multipleTokensBinding, serviceAddress);
           // configure the username credentials, the client 
           // certificate and the server certificate on the channel 
           // factory 
           channelFactory.Credentials.UserName.UserName = username;
           channelFactory.Credentials.UserName.Password = password;
           channelFactory.Credentials.ClientCertificate.SetCertificate(
           "CN=client.com", StoreLocation.CurrentUser, StoreName.My);
              channelFactory.Credentials.ServiceCertificate.SetDefaultCertificate(
           "CN=localhost", StoreLocation.LocalMachine, StoreName.My);
           client = channelFactory.CreateChannel();
           Console.WriteLine("Echo service returned: {0}", 
                                           client.Echo());

           ((IChannel)client).Close();
           channelFactory.Close();
        }
        catch (CommunicationException e)
        {
         Abort((IChannel)client, channelFactory);
         // if there is a fault then print it out
         FaultException fe = null;
         Exception tmp = e;
         while (tmp != null)
         {
            fe = tmp as FaultException;
            if (fe != null)
            {
                break;
            }
            tmp = tmp.InnerException;
        }
        if (fe != null)
        {
           Console.WriteLine("The server sent back a fault: {0}", 
         fe.CreateMessageFault().Reason.GetMatchingTranslation().Text);
        }
        else
        {
         Console.WriteLine("The request failed with exception: {0}",e);
        }
    }
    catch (TimeoutException)
    {
        Abort((IChannel)client, channelFactory);
        Console.WriteLine("The request timed out");
    }
    catch (Exception e)
    {
         Abort((IChannel)client, channelFactory);
          Console.WriteLine(
          "The request failed with unexpected exception: {0}", e);
    }
    Console.WriteLine();
    Console.WriteLine("Press <ENTER> to terminate client.");
    Console.ReadLine();
}

Displaying Callers' Information

To display the caller's information, you can use the ServiceSecurityContext.Current.AuthorizationContext.ClaimSets as shown in the following code. The ServiceSecurityContext.Current.AuthorizationContext.ClaimSets contains authorization claims associated with the current caller. Those claims are supplied automatically by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) for every token received in the message.

bool TryGetClaimValue<TClaimResource>(ClaimSet claimSet, string 
                         claimType, out TClaimResource resourceValue)
    where TClaimResource : class
{
    resourceValue = default(TClaimResource);
    IEnumerable<Claim> matchingClaims = 
    claimSet.FindClaims(claimType, Rights.PossessProperty);
    if (matchingClaims == null)
          return false;
    IEnumerator<Claim> enumerator = matchingClaims.GetEnumerator();
    if (enumerator.MoveNext())
    {
        resourceValue = (enumerator.Current.Resource == null) ? null : (enumerator.Current.Resource as TClaimResource);
        return true;
    }
    else
    {
         return false;
    }
}

// Returns the username and certificate subject name provided by the client
void GetCallerIdentities(ServiceSecurityContext callerSecurityContext, out string userName, out string certificateSubjectName)
{
    userName = null;
    certificateSubjectName = null;

    // Look in all the claimsets in the authorization context
    foreach (ClaimSet claimSet in 
      callerSecurityContext.AuthorizationContext.ClaimSets)
    {
        if (claimSet is WindowsClaimSet)
        {
            // Try to find a Name claim. This will have been generated 
            //from the windows username.
            string tmpName;
            if (TryGetClaimValue<string>(claimSet, ClaimTypes.Name, 
                                                     out tmpName))
            {
                userName = tmpName;
            }
        }
        else if (claimSet is X509CertificateClaimSet)
         {
            //Try to find an X500DisinguishedName claim. 
            //This will have been generated from the client 
            //certificate.
            X500DistinguishedName tmpDistinguishedName;
            if (TryGetClaimValue<X500DistinguishedName>(claimSet, 
               ClaimTypes.X500DistinguishedName, 
               out tmpDistinguishedName))
            {
                    certificateSubjectName = tmpDistinguishedName.Name;
            }
        }
    }
}

Running the Sample

When you run the sample, the client first prompts you to provide user name and password for the user name token. Be sure to provide correct values for your system account, because WCF on the service maps the values supplied in the user name token into the identity provided by the system. After that, the client displays the response from the service. Press ENTER in the client window to shut down the client.

Setup Batch File

The Setup.bat batch file included with this sample allows you to configure the server with relevant certificates to run Internet Information Services (IIS) hosted application that requires server certificate-based security. This batch file must be modified to work across machines or to work in a non-hosted case.

The following provides a brief overview of the different sections of the batch files so that they can be modified to run in appropriate configuration.

Creating the Client Certificate

The following lines from the Setup.bat batch file create the client certificate to be used. The %CLIENT_NAME% variable specifies the subject of the client certificate. This sample uses "client.com" as the subject name.

The certificate is stored in My (Personal) store under the CurrentUser store location.

echo ************
echo making client cert
echo ************
makecert.exe -sr CurrentUser -ss MY -a sha1 -n CN=%CLIENT_NAME% -sky exchange -pe

Installing the Client Certificate into the Server's Trusted Store

The following line in the Setup.bat batch file copies the client certificate into the server’s trusted people store. This step is required because certificates generated by Makecert.exe are not implicitly trusted by the server’s system. If you already have a certificate that is rooted in a client trusted root certificate—for example, a Microsoft issued certificate—this step of populating the client certificate store with the server certificate is not required.

echo ************
echo copying client cert to server's CurrentUserstore
echo ************
certmgr.exe -add -r CurrentUser -s My -c -n %CLIENT_NAME% -r LocalMachine -s TrustedPeople

Creating the Server Certificate

The following lines from the Setup.bat batch file create the server certificate to be used. The %SERVER_NAME% variable specifies the server name. Change this variable to specify your own server name. The default in this batch file is localhost.

The certificate is stored in My (Personal) store under the LocalMachine store location. The certificate is stored in the LocalMachine store for the IIS-hosted services. For self-hosted services, you should modify the batch file to store the server certificate in the CurrentUser store location by replacing the string LocalMachine with CurrentUser.

echo ************
echo Server cert setup starting
echo %SERVER_NAME%
echo ************
echo making server cert
echo ************
makecert.exe -sr LocalMachine -ss MY -a sha1 -n CN=%SERVER_NAME% -sky exchange -pe

Installing Server Certificate into Client's Trusted Certificate Store

The following lines in the Setup.bat batch file copy the server certificate into the client trusted people store. This step is required because certificates generated by Makecert.exe are not implicitly trusted by the client system. If you already have a certificate that is rooted in a client trusted root certificate—for example, a Microsoft issued certificate—this step of populating the client certificate store with the server certificate is not required.

echo ************
echo copying server cert to client's TrustedPeople store
echo ************certmgr.exe -add -r LocalMachine -s My -c -n %SERVER_NAME% -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople

Enabling Access to the Certificate's Private Key

To enable access to the certificate private key from the IIS-hosted service, the user account under which the IIS-hosted process is running must be granted appropriate permissions for the private key. This is accomplished by last steps in the Setup.bat script.

echo ************
echo setting privileges on server certificates
echo ************
for /F "delims=" %%i in ('"%ProgramFiles%\ServiceModelSampleTools\FindPrivateKey.exe" My LocalMachine -n CN^=%SERVER_NAME% -a') do set PRIVATE_KEY_FILE=%%i
set WP_ACCOUNT=NT AUTHORITY\NETWORK SERVICE
(ver | findstr /C:"5.1") && set WP_ACCOUNT=%COMPUTERNAME%\ASPNET
echo Y|cacls.exe "%PRIVATE_KEY_FILE%" /E /G "%WP_ACCOUNT%":R
iisreset

To set up, build, and run the sample

  1. Be sure you have performed the One-Time Setup Procedure for the Windows Communication Foundation Samples.

  2. To build the solution, follow the instructions in Building the Windows Communication Foundation Samples.

  3. To run the sample in a single- or cross-machine configuration, use the following instructions.

To run the sample on the same machine

  1. Run Setup.bat from the sample install folder inside a Visual Studio 2010 command prompt run with administrator privileges. This installs all the certificates required for running the sample.

ms751480.note(en-us,VS.100).gifNote:
The Setup.bat batch file is designed to be run from a Visual Studio 2010 Command Prompt. The PATH environment variable set within the Visual Studio 2010 Command Prompt points to the directory that contains executables required by the Setup.bat script. Be sure to remove the certificates by running Cleanup.bat when finished with the sample. Other security samples use the same certificates.

  1. Launch Client.exe from \client\bin. Client activity is displayed on the client console application.

  2. If the client and service are not able to communicate, see Troubleshooting Tips.

To run the sample across machines

  1. Create a directory on the service machine. Create a virtual application named servicemodelsamples for this directory using the Internet Information Services (IIS) management tool.

  2. Copy the service program files from \inetpub\wwwroot\servicemodelsamples to the virtual directory on the service machine. Ensure that you copy the files in the \bin subdirectory. Also copy the Setup.bat, Cleanup.bat, and ImportClientCert.bat files to the service machine.

  3. Create a directory on the client machine for the client binaries.

  4. Copy the client program files to the client directory on the client machine. Also copy the Setup.bat, Cleanup.bat, and ImportServiceCert.bat files to the client.

  5. On the server, run setup.bat service in a Visual Studio command prompt opened with administrator privileges. Running setup.bat with the service argument creates a service certificate with the fully-qualified domain name of the machine and exports the service certificate to a file named Service.cer.

  6. Edit Web.config to reflect the new certificate name (in the findValue attribute in the serviceCertificate element of serviceCredentials) which is the same as the fully-qualified domain name of the machine.

  7. Copy the Service.cer file from the service directory to the client directory on the client machine.

  8. On the client, run setup.bat client in a Visual Studio command prompt opened with administrator privileges. Running setup.batwith the client argument creates a client certificate named client.com and exports the client certificate to a file named Client.cer.

  9. In the Client.exe.config file on the client machine, change the address value of the endpoint to match the new address of your service. Do this by replacing localhost with the fully-qualified domain name of the server.

  10. Copy the Client.cer file from the client directory to the service directory on the server.

  11. On the client, run ImportServiceCert.bat. This imports the service certificate from the Service.cer file into the CurrentUser - TrustedPeople store.

  12. On the server, run ImportClientCert.bat, This imports the client certificate from the Client.cer file into the LocalMachine - TrustedPeople store.

  13. On the client machine, launch Client.exe from a command prompt window. If the client and service are not able to communicate, see Troubleshooting Tips.

To clean up after the sample

  • Run Cleanup.bat in the samples folder once you have finished running the sample.

ms751480.note(en-us,VS.100).gifNote:
This script does not remove service certificates on a client when running this sample across machines. If you have run WCF samples that use certificates across machines, be sure to clear the service certificates that have been installed in the CurrentUser - TrustedPeople store. To do this, use the following command: certmgr -del -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople -c -n <Fully Qualified Server Machine Name> For example: certmgr -del -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople -c -n server1.contoso.com.

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