SQLCancel Function


Version Introduced: ODBC 1.0 Standards Compliance: ISO 92


SQLCancel cancels the processing on a statement.

To cancel processing on a connection or statement, use SQLCancelHandle Function.

     SQLHSTMT     StatementHandle);


[Input] Statement handle.


When SQLCancel returns SQL_ERROR or SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO, an associated SQLSTATE value can be obtained by calling SQLGetDiagRec with a HandleType of SQL_HANDLE_STMT and a Handle of StatementHandle. The following table lists the SQLSTATE values commonly returned by SQLCancel and explains each one in the context of this function; the notation "(DM)" precedes the descriptions of SQLSTATEs returned by the Driver Manager. The return code associated with each SQLSTATE value is SQL_ERROR, unless noted otherwise.





General warning

Driver-specific informational message. (Function returns SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO.)


General error

An error occurred for which there was no specific SQLSTATE and for which no implementation-specific SQLSTATE was defined. The error message returned by SQLGetDiagRec in the argument *MessageText buffer describes the error and its cause.


Memory allocation error

The driver was unable to allocate memory required to support execution or completion of the function.


Function sequence error

(DM) An asynchronously executing function was called for the connection handle that is associated with the StatementHandle. This asynchronous function was still executing when the SQLCancel function was called.

(DM) Cancel operation failed because an asynchronous operation is in progress on a connection handle that is associated with StatementHandle.


Memory management error

The function call could not be processed because the underlying memory objects could not be accessed, possibly because of low memory conditions.


Server declined cancel request

The server declined the cancel request.


Connection is suspended due to unknown transaction state. Only disconnect and read-only functions are allowed.

(DM) For more information about suspended state, see SQLEndTran Function.


Connection timeout expired

The connection timeout period expired before the data source responded to the request. The connection timeout period is set through SQLSetConnectAttr, SQL_ATTR_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT.


Driver does not support this function

(DM) The driver associated with the StatementHandle does not support the function.

SQLCancel can cancel the following types of processing on a statement:

  • A function running asynchronously on the statement.

  • A function on a statement that needs data.

  • A function running on the statement on another thread.

In ODBC 2.x, if an application calls SQLCancel when no processing is being done on the statement, SQLCancel has the same effect as SQLFreeStmt with the SQL_CLOSE option; this behavior is defined only for completeness and applications should call SQLFreeStmt or SQLCloseCursor to close cursors.

When SQLCancel is called to cancel a function running asynchronously in a statement or a function on a statement that needs data, diagnostic records posted by the function being canceled are cleared, and SQLCancel posts its own diagnostic records; when SQLCancel is called to cancel a function running on a statement on another thread, however, it does not clear the diagnostic records of the being canceled function and does not post its own diagnostic records.

After an application calls a function asynchronously, it calls the function repeatedly to determine whether it has finished processing. If the function is still processing, it returns SQL_STILL_EXECUTING. If the function has finished processing, it returns a different code.

After any call to the function that returns SQL_STILL_EXECUTING, an application can call SQLCancel to cancel the function. If the cancel request is successful, the driver returns SQL_SUCCESS. This message does not indicate that the function was actually canceled; it indicates that the cancel request was processed. When or if the function is actually canceled is driver-dependent and data source–dependent. The application must continue to call the original function until the return code is not SQL_STILL_EXECUTING. If the function was successfully canceled, the return code is SQL_ERROR and SQLSTATE HY008 (Operation canceled). If the function completed its normal processing, the return code is SQL_SUCCESS or SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO if the function succeeded or SQL_ERROR and a SQLSTATE other than HY008 (Operation canceled) if the function failed.


In ODBC 3.5, a call to SQLCancel when no processing is being done on the statement is not treated as SQLFreeStmt with the SQL_CLOSE option, but has is no effect at all. To close a cursor, an application should call SQLCloseCursor, not SQLCancel.

For more information about asynchronous processing, see Asynchronous Execution.

After SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect returns SQL_NEED_DATA and before data has been sent for all data-at-execution parameters, an application can call SQLCancel to cancel the statement execution. After the statement has been canceled, the application can call SQLExecute or SQLExecDirect again. For more information, see SQLBindParameter.

After SQLBulkOperations or SQLSetPos returns SQL_NEED_DATA and before data has been sent for all data-at-execution columns, an application can call SQLCancel to cancel the operation. After the operation has been canceled, the application can call SQLBulkOperations or SQLSetPos again; canceling does not affect the cursor state or the current cursor position. For more information, see SQLBulkOperations or SQLSetPos.

In a multithread application, the application can cancel a function that is running on another thread. To cancel the function, the application calls SQLCancel with the same statement handle as that used by the target function, but on a different thread. How the function is canceled depends on the driver and the operating system. As in canceling a function running asynchronously, the return code of the SQLCancel indicates only whether the driver processed the request successfully. Only SQL_SUCCESS or SQL_ERROR can be returned; no diagnostic information is returned. If the original function is canceled, it returns SQL_ERROR and SQLSTATE HY008 (Operation canceled).

If an SQL statement is being executed when SQLCancel is called on another thread to cancel the statement execution, it is possible for the execution to succeed and return SQL_SUCCESS while the cancel is also successful. In this case, the Driver Manager assumes that the cursor opened by the statement execution is closed by the cancel, so the application will not be able to use the cursor.

For more information about threading, see Multithreading.

For information about


Binding a buffer to a parameter

SQLBindParameter Function

Performing bulk insert or update operations

SQLBulkOperations Function

Cancels a function running asynchronously on a connection handle, in addition to the functionality of SQLCancel.

SQLCancelHandle Function

Executing an SQL statement

SQLExecDirect Function

Executing a prepared SQL statement

SQLExecute Function

Freeing a statement handle


Obtaining a field of a diagnostic record or a field of the diagnostic header

SQLGetDiagField Function

Obtaining multiple fields of a diagnostic data structure

SQLGetDiagRec Function

Returning the next parameter to send data for

SQLParamData Function

Sending parameter data at execution time

SQLPutData Function

Positioning the cursor in a rowset, refreshing data in the rowset, or updating or deleting data in the result set

SQLSetPos Function