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How a Client Authenticates an SCP-based Windows Sockets Service

This topic shows the code that a client application uses to compose an SPN for a service. The client binds to the service's service connection point (SCP) to retrieve the data required to connect to the service. The SCP also contains data that the client can use to compose the service's SPN. For more information and a code example that binds to the SCP and retrieves the necessary properties, see How Clients Find and Use a Service Connection Point.

This topic also shows how a client uses an SSPI security package and the service's SPN to establish a mutually authenticated connection to the Windows Sockets service. Be aware that this code is almost identical to the code required in Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 and earlier just to authenticate the client to the server. The only difference is that the client must supply the SPN and specify the ISC_REQ_MUTUAL_AUTH flag.

Client Code to Make an SPN for a Service


// Initialize these strings by querying the service's SCP.
TCHAR szDn[MAX_PATH],     // DN of the service's SCP.
      szServer[MAX_PATH], // DNS name of the service's server.
      szClass[MAX_PATH];  // Service class.
 
TCHAR szSpn[MAX_PATH];    // Buffer for SPN.
SOCKET sockServer;        // Socket connected to service.
DWORD dwRes, dwLen;
.
.
.
// Compose the SPN for the service using the DN, Class, and Server
// returned by ScpLocate.
dwLen = sizeof(szSpn);
dwRes = DsMakeSpn(
     szClass,    // Service class.
     szDn,       // DN of the service's SCP.
     szServer,   // DNS name of the server on which service is running.
     0,          // No port component in SPN.
     NULL,       // No referrer.
     &dwLen,     // Size of szSpn buffer.
     szSpn);     // Buffer to receive the SPN.

if (!DoAuthentication (sockServer, szSpn)) {
    closesocket (sockServer);
    return(FALSE);
}
.
.
.

Client Code to Authenticate the Service

This code example consists of two routines: DoAuthentication and GenClientContext. After calling DsMakeSpn to compose an SPN for the service, the client passes the SPN to the DoAuthentication routine, which calls the GenClientContext to generate the initial buffer to send to the service. DoAuthentication uses the socket handle to send the buffer and receive the service's response passed to the SSPI package by another call to GenClientContext. This loop is repeated until the authentication fails or GenClientContext sets a flag that indicates the authentication succeeded.

The GenClientContext routine interacts with the SSPI package to generate the authentication data to send to the service and process the data received from the service. The key components of the authentication data provided by the client include:

  • The service principal name which identifies the credentials that the service must authenticate.
  • The client's credentials. The AcquireCredentialsHandle function of the security package extracts these credentials from the client's security context established at logon.
  • To request mutual authentication, the client must specify the ISC_REQ_MUTUAL_AUTH flag when it calls the InitializeSecurityContext function during the GenClientContext routine.

// Structure for storing the state of the authentication sequence.
typedef struct _AUTH_SEQ 
{
    BOOL _fNewConversation;
    CredHandle _hcred;
    BOOL _fHaveCredHandle;
    BOOL _fHaveCtxtHandle;
    struct _SecHandle  _hctxt;
} AUTH_SEQ, *PAUTH_SEQ;
 
/***************************************************************/
//   DoAuthentication routine for the client.
//
//   Manages the client's authentication conversation with the service 
//   using the supplied socket handle.
//
//   Returns TRUE if the mutual authentication is successful.
//   Otherwise, it returns FALSE.
//
/***************************************************************/
BOOL DoAuthentication (
        SOCKET s, 
        LPTSTR szSpn)
{
BOOL done = FALSE;
DWORD cbOut, cbIn;
 
// Call the security package to generate the initial buffer of 
// authentication data to send to the service.
cbOut = g_cbMaxMessage;
if (!GenClientContext (s, NULL, 0, g_pOutBuf, 
                       &cbOut, &done, szSpn))
    return(FALSE);
    
if (!SendMsg (s, g_pOutBuf, cbOut))
    return(FALSE);
 
// Pass the service's response back to the security package, and send 
// the package's output back to the service. Repeat until complete.
while (!done) 
{
    if (!ReceiveMsg (s, g_pInBuf, g_cbMaxMessage, &cbIn))
        return(FALSE);
 
    cbOut = g_cbMaxMessage;
    if (!GenClientContext (s, g_pInBuf, cbIn, g_pOutBuf, 
                           &cbOut, &done, szSpn))
        return(FALSE);
 
    if (!SendMsg (s, g_pOutBuf, cbOut))
        return(FALSE);
}
 
return(TRUE);
}
 
/***************************************************************/
//   GenClientContext routine
//
//   Handles the client's interactions with the security package.
//   Optionally takes an input buffer coming from the service 
//   and generates a buffer of data to send back to the 
//   service. Also returns an indication when the authentication
//   is complete.
//
//   Returns TRUE if the mutual authentication is successful.
//   Otherwise, it returns FALSE.
//
/***************************************************************/
BOOL GenClientContext (
            DWORD dwKey,     // Socket handle used as key.
            BYTE *pIn,
            DWORD cbIn,
            BYTE *pOut,
            DWORD *pcbOut,
            BOOL *pfDone,
            LPTSTR szSpn)
{
SECURITY_STATUS  ssStatus;
TimeStamp        Lifetime;
SecBufferDesc    OutBuffDesc;
SecBuffer        OutSecBuff;
SecBufferDesc    InBuffDesc;
SecBuffer        InSecBuff;
ULONG            ContextAttributes;
PAUTH_SEQ        pAS; // Structure to store state of authentication.
 
// Get structure that contains the state of the authentication sequence.
if (!GetEntry (dwKey, (PVOID*) &pAS))
    return(FALSE);
 
if (pAS->_fNewConversation)
{
    ssStatus = g_pFuncs->AcquireCredentialsHandle (
            NULL,    // Principal
            PACKAGE_NAME,
            SECPKG_CRED_OUTBOUND,
            NULL,    // LOGON id
            NULL,    // Authentication data
            NULL,    // Get key function.
            NULL,    // Get key argument.
            &pAS->_hcred,
            &Lifetime
            );
    if (SEC_SUCCESS (ssStatus))
        pAS->_fHaveCredHandle = TRUE;
    else 
    {
        fprintf (stderr, 
                 "AcquireCredentialsHandle failed: %u\n", ssStatus);
        return(FALSE);
    }
}
 
// Prepare output buffer.
OutBuffDesc.ulVersion = 0;
OutBuffDesc.cBuffers = 1;
OutBuffDesc.pBuffers = &OutSecBuff;
 
OutSecBuff.cbBuffer = *pcbOut;
OutSecBuff.BufferType = SECBUFFER_TOKEN;
OutSecBuff.pvBuffer = pOut;
 
// Prepare input buffer.
if (!pAS->_fNewConversation) 
{
    InBuffDesc.ulVersion = 0;
    InBuffDesc.cBuffers = 1;
    InBuffDesc.pBuffers = &InSecBuff;
 
    InSecBuff.cbBuffer = cbIn;
    InSecBuff.BufferType = SECBUFFER_TOKEN;
    InSecBuff.pvBuffer = pIn;
}
 
_tprintf(TEXT("InitializeSecurityContext: pszTarget=%s\n"),szSpn);
 
ssStatus = g_pFuncs->InitializeSecurityContext (
                     &pAS->_hcred,
                     pAS->_fNewConversation ? NULL : &pAS->_hctxt,
                     szSpn,
                     ISC_REQ_MUTUAL_AUTH,      // Context requirements
                     0,                        // Reserved1
                     SECURITY_NATIVE_DREP,
                     pAS->_fNewConversation ? NULL : &InBuffDesc,
                     0,                        // Reserved2
                     &pAS->_hctxt,
                     &OutBuffDesc,
                     &ContextAttributes,
                     &Lifetime
                     );
if (!SEC_SUCCESS (ssStatus)) 
{
    fprintf (stderr, "init context failed: %X\n", ssStatus);
    return FALSE;
}
 
pAS->_fHaveCtxtHandle = TRUE;
 
// Complete token if applicable.
if ( (SEC_I_COMPLETE_NEEDED == ssStatus) || 
     (SEC_I_COMPLETE_AND_CONTINUE == ssStatus))  
{
    if (g_pFuncs->CompleteAuthToken) 
    {
        ssStatus = g_pFuncs->CompleteAuthToken (&pAS->_hctxt, 
                                                &OutBuffDesc);
        if (!SEC_SUCCESS(ssStatus)) 
        {
            fprintf (stderr, "complete failed: %u\n", ssStatus);
            return FALSE;
        }
    } else 
    {
        fprintf (stderr, "Complete not supported.\n");
        return FALSE;
    }
}
 
*pcbOut = OutSecBuff.cbBuffer;
 
if (pAS->_fNewConversation)
    pAS->_fNewConversation = FALSE;
 
*pfDone = !((SEC_I_CONTINUE_NEEDED == ssStatus) ||
            (SEC_I_COMPLETE_AND_CONTINUE == ssStatus));
 
// Check the ISC_RET_MUTUAL_AUTH flag to verify that 
// mutual authentication was performed.
if (*pfDone && !(ContextAttributes && ISC_RET_MUTUAL_AUTH) )
    _tprintf(TEXT("Mutual Auth not set in returned context.\n"));
 
return TRUE;
}

 

 

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