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Internet Development Glossary

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alpha In computer graphics, the measure of a pixel's opacity. A pixel with the maximum alpha value is opaque, one with a value of zero is transparent, and one with an intermediate value is translucent.
alpha blending A technique in computer graphics that causes a foreground image to appear partially transparent over a background image. To accomplish this, the technique performs a weighted average of the color components of the two images.
alpha premultiplied Technique of scaling the three color components of a sample by alpha before storing their values. This saves many mathematical steps when alpha blending two images. For the PMARGB32 pixel format, all color values are alpha premultiplied.
ARGB32 One of the two common pixel formats supported by DirectX; the other is PMARGB32. ARGB32 consists of uncompressed alpha, red, green, and blue. The color channel is not premultiplied by alpha in this format.
ASP.NET HTML controls HTML elements exposed to the server so you can program them. HTML server controls expose an object model that maps very closely to the HTML elements that they render.
ASP.NET server controls Controls with more built-in features than HTML server controls. ASP.NET server controls include not only form-type controls such as buttons and text boxes, but also special-purpose controls such as a calendar. ASP.NET server controls are more abstract than HTML server controls, in that their object model does not necessarily reflect HTML syntax.
attached Physically connected to the system. A device may be installed but not currently attached.
authentication data Scheme-specific block of data that is exchanged between the server and client during authentication. To prove its identity, the client encrypts some or all of this data with a user name and password. The client sends the encrypted data to the server, which decrypts the data and compares it to the original. If the decrypted data matches the original data, the client is authenticated.
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base64 encoding Scheme used to transmit binary data. Base64 processes data as 24-bit groups, mapping this data to four encoded characters. It is sometimes referred to as 3-to-4 encoding. Each 6 bits of the 24-bit group is used as an index into a mapping table (the base64 alphabet) to obtain a character for the encoded data. The encoded data has line lengths limited to 76 characters.
bilinear Method used to map a source image to a target image. This method uses the weighted average of the four nearest source pixels to define a target pixel.
block level element An HTML element that is displayed with a line break before and after, such as H1, DIV, and BLOCKQUOTE.
blog A frequently updated online journal or column. Blogs are often used to publish personal or company information in an informal way. Short for web log.
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Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) A standard language that attaches formatting descriptions (such as fonts, colors, and spacing) to HTML and XML elements. CSS separates the layout and styles of a Web page from its content.
certificate store Typically, permanent storage where certificates, certificate trust lists (CTLs), and certificate revocation lists (CRLs) are stored. A certificate store can also be temporary when working with session-based certificates.
certification authority A trusted entity that makes a statement (represented by an X.509 certificate) about the authenticity of another certificate.
channel Web site described by a file.
code page Table that relates the binary character codes used by a program to keys on the keyboard or to the appearance of characters on the monitor. Using code pages is a way to provide support for character sets and keyboard layouts used in different countries. You can configure devices such as the monitor and the keyboard to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.
collection An object that contains a set of related objects. An object's position in the collection can change whenever a change occurs in the collection; therefore, the position of any specific object in the collection may vary.
color key A color used for transparent or translucent effects. An overlay surface is displayed in the region of the primary surface that contains the color key. In video production, color keys are used to combine two video signals. Also called a chroma key.
combinator A character used to express a relationship between two simple selectors in CSS.
compositing Process of combining two images to form a new image. The most common compositing operation is an over operation, where one image is placed over another, taking into account the alpha information of both images.
control selection Displayed content that is selected by the user or by a method such that the sizing handles are displayed. Objects enter a control-selected state when the user clicks once on an object. To place an object in a control-selected state, the document or element containing the object must be in edit mode. Examples of elements that are control selected include images, tables, and anything that is positioned absolutely.
Cryptographic Digest A one-way hash function that takes a variable-length input string and converts it to a fixed-length output string (called a cryptographic digest.) This fixed-length output string is probabilistically unique for every different input string and thus can act as a fingerprint of a file. When a file with a cryptographic digest is downloaded, the receiver recomputes the digest. If the output string matches the digest contained in the file, the receiver has proof that the received file was not tampered with and is identical to the file originally sent.
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data binding Method of binding user interface elements to a data source.
data source object Object that supplies data to other objects or controls on a Web page, form or user interface (UI).
data space A series of transforms that operate on data in a specific order.
DDSURFACEDESC Data structure that contains a description of the properties of a DirectDrawSurface object. For more information, see the Microsoft DirectDraw documentation in the Microsoft DirectX Foundation Software Development Kit (SDK).
descent Pixel offset of the bottom of an element with respect to its baseline.
device context A data structure that defines the graphic objects, their associated attributes, and the graphic modes affecting output on a device.
DIBSECTION Structure that contains information about a device-independent bitmap created by calling the CreateDIBSection function. For more information, see the Platform Software Development Kit (SDK).
Direct3DRMMeshBuilder3 Object used to interact with 3-D mesh objects that supports the IDirect3DRMMeshBuilder3 interface from Microsoft Direct3D Retained Mode. The methods of this interface are commonly used to modify input meshes and produce 3-D transform output. For more information, see the Direct3D Retained Mode Software Development Kit (SDK) documentation.
DirectDrawSurface Object that contains the pixel data of an image. The color and alpha of each pixel can be stored in different pixel formats.
dirty range An area in a markup container where changes have occurred.
display gravity A DISPLAY_GRAVITY enumeration value that indicates which line of text a display pointer will favor if there is an ambiguity about which line it should be placed on. Ambiguities can arise when the display pointer is moved, or when the contents of a document change. Use SetDisplayGravity and GetDisplayGravity to specify and retrieve the display gravity.
display pointer A pointer that marks a position in the markup text of an HTML document during editing in relation to the onscreen position of the rendered page. A display pointer is controlled by an GetDisplayGravity interface. Display pointers work in conjunction with markup pointers.
dithering A method to display a range of colors with a limited palette. Each pixel on the source image is represented by multiple pixels (usually a 2x2 square) on the destination image. From a distance, the eye blends the multiple pixels into one color that has more shades than the original palette. The technique results in a better visual appearance than the removal of low precision bits. See a standard graphics reference for details. Dithering is a supported option by DXSurface and Microsoft DirectX Transform objects.
downlevel browsers Earlier browsers with basic features and capabilities. Browsers that do not support scripting, DHTML, DHTML behavior, or XML are typically considered to be downlevel browsers.
DXSurface Microsoft DirectX Transform data object used to store 2-D images. DXSurfaces usually wrap DirectDrawSurfaces to provide enhanced functionality, such as simplified pixel access.
DXTransform Microsoft DirectX Transform object used to manipulate 2-D images and 3-D meshes. DirectX Transform objects are created with the CreateTransform interface from a list of possible transform types. They can produce time-dependent effects on images, such as fade, melt, twist, or explode.
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execute buffer A fully self-contained, independent packet of information that describes a 3-D scene. An execute buffer contains a vertex list followed by an instruction stream. The instruction stream consists of operation codes, and the data that is operated on by those codes.
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flow layout element Rectangular element with explicit or implicit height and/or width properties that can wrap its text from line to line. The td and body elements are examples of flow layout elements. Any element can be made a flow layout element by giving it a height or width attribute. For instance, a p element is not itself a flow layout element because it does not have a definite width of its own. It inherits its width from the flow layout element that contains it. To make it a flow layout element, set either its height or width properties, or both.
full delegation When a layout behavior requests complete control over the visual layout of elements.
full PIDL A PIDL that uniquely describes an object relative to the desktop folder.
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hidden helper INPUT element of type hidden that you use to store information about the state of a Web page.
HTTP verb The HTTP verb (or HTTP method) is an instruction sent in a request message that notifies an HTTP server of the action to perform on the specified resource. For example, "GET" specifies that a resource is being retrieved from the server. Common verbs include "GET", "POST", and "HEAD". For a complete list of standard HTTP verbs, see the HTTP/1.1 specification.
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inline element An HTML element that typically does not start a new line, such as EM, FONT, and SPAN.
item identifier list Sequence of one or more SHITEMID structures that uniquely defines an object relative to some root object.
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Literal Content Content inside an element's open and closing tags, which is not parsed or rendered by MSHTML. The Literal Content inside an element is also commonly referred to as a data island.
local registration authority Intermediary between a publisher and a certificate authority (CA). The LRA can, for example, verify a publisher's credentials before sending them to the CA.
local registration authority (LRA) An intermediary between a publisher and a certification authority (CA). The LRA can, for example, verify a publisher's credentials before sending them to the CA.
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markup container The staging area for editing an HTML document or HTML fragments.
markup pointer Marks a position in the markup text of an HTML document when the document is being edited.
master element An element in a parent document to which a child document is attached. Examples of master elements are input, frame, iframe, or elements created by an element behavior.
MSHTML Microsoft HTML parsing and rendering engine, implemented in Mshtml.dll.
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natural sizing Default layout and sizing of a collection of elements, as determined by MSHTML.
nearest neighbor Method used to map a source image to a target image. This method uses only the nearest source pixel to define a target pixel.
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Object Model Formal description of a programmable object, which can consist of one or more classes, events, functions, interfaces, methods, namespaces, objects, and properties.
one-off British colloquial expression. It usually indicates something that happens only once, or which is instantiated only once. In WAB, a one-off address is a messaging address representing a recipient that is not in the current address list.
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palettized surface A surface where each pixel color is represented by a number that indexes into a color palette. Also called a color-indexed surface.
pixel formats Size and arrangement of pixel color components in memory. It is specified by the total number of bits used per pixel and the number of bits used to store the red, green, blue, and alpha components of the color. For example, the RGB24 pixel format uses 24 bits to store a pixel color, with eight bits each for red, green, and blue. The ARGB32 pixel format uses 32 bits, with 24 bits of color information and 8 bits of alpha channel information.
PKCS #7 The Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard. A general syntax for data to which cryptography may be applied, such as digital signatures and encryption. It also provides a syntax for disseminating certificates or certificate revocation lists and other message attributes, such as time stamps, to the message.
PMARGB32 One of the two common pixel formats supported by Microsoft DirectX Transform for image modification; the other is ARGB32. PMARG32 uses 8-bit values for alpha, red, green, and blue, for a total of 32-bits per pixel. Each color is alpha premultiplied, which makes alpha blending operations more efficient.
pointer gravity Enum enumeration value that indicates whether a markup pointer will stay next to the content on its right or on its left if there is ambiguity about its placement. Ambiguities can arise when the markup pointer is moved, or when the contents of a document are changed next to a markup pointer. Use the SetGravity and Gravity methods to specify and retrieve the pointer gravity.
portable executable image The standard Win32 executable format.
posterizing Lookup table operation that reduces the number of colors used in an image. DXSurface objects use 256 levels for each color channel. Posterization reduces this to any number of levels per channel less than 256, which can produce interesting effects on the source image.
procedural surfaces Surfaces with pixel RGB color and alpha values defined dynamically. Only the procedure used to compute the surface is stored in memory. Examples are the surfaces resulting from AlphaImageLoader and Gradient filters.
pseudo-class Used by CSS selectors to allow information that is external to the HTML source (such as whether a link has been visited) to classify elements.
pseudo-element Used by CSS selectors to style typographical (such as the first line or letter) rather than structural elements.
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relative PIDL A PIDL that is relative to some root object in the shell namespace other than the desktop folder. This is commonly the parent folder of the item.
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sample Indivisible element of an image that is stored in computer memory. In Microsoft DirectX Transform, a DXSurface is composed of an array of samples. The terms pixel and sample are often used interchangeably.
sample runmap Array of sample runs that makes up an entire image.
selection anchor Point at which a selection operation was initiated. This point might be at the visual beginning or end of the selection, depending on how the user made the selection. For example, if the user makes a text selection by moving the mouse pointer from the end of a sentence to its beginning, the selection anchor will be at the end of that sentence.
selection end Point at which a selection operation ends. This point might be at the visual beginning or end of the selection, depending on how the user made the selection. For example, if the user makes a text selection by moving the mouse pointer from the end of a sentence to its beginning, the selection end will be at the beginning of that sentence.
selector CSS string that identifies what elements the corresponding style rule applies to.
simple PIDL A PIDL that is parsed without disk verification.
site selectable Element, like an img element or a control, that is selectable as a whole element in the editor. Any element with a height or width attribute, either implicitly or explicitly defined, is site selectable.
software publishing certificate A public key certificate standard (PKCS) #7 signed-data object containing X.509 certificates.
storage A logical grouping of data or objects within a compound file that can contain streams or other storages. The relationship between storages and streams in a compound file is similar to that of folders and files.
stream An abstraction of a sequence of bytes, such as a file, an I/O device, an inter-process communication pipe, a TCP/IP socket, or a spooled print job. The relationship between streams and storages in a compound file is similar to that of files and folders.
surface picking Process of choosing which input surface contributes most to the output surface at a certain position on the output. Surface picking is often used with mouse operations to choose different actions in code that depend on which image you select. In cases where several images are alpha blended on the output point, the transform can use the alpha channel of each input sample to choose the input surface.
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task manager Generic service used to schedule and run caller-defined tasks. The task manager automatically breaks a transform task into threads and manages their completion, which improves the efficiency of the transform.
text selection Visible content selected by the user (or by a method). You can retrieve and modify the HTML text of the text selection by using the createRange method of the selection object.
threshold filtering Process of reducing a full-color image to an eight-color image. This is done by setting a value for a threshold, which is the cutoff value for each color component of a sample. If the value for the color component is less than pVal*255, the sample color is assigned the value of zero. If it is above pVal*255, it is assigned the value of 255. This operation reduces the bit depth of the image to 3-bit color.
ticket Cookie that contains a user profile for Passport authentication. Each ticket corresponds to a single URL. The logon server of a Passport Domain Authority provides tickets, which the client sends to a Passport member for authentication.
time container Element with which an HTML+TIME (Timed Interactive Multimedia Extensions) behavior is associated. The element must have one or more child elements to be considered a container.
transform (Rights Management) An operation that changes the appearance or format of data without altering its content; that is, an encoding of information according to predefined rules.
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user agent The user agent is the client application that requests a document from an HTTP server. When the client sends a request to an HTTP server, it typically sends the name of the user agent with the request header so that the server can determine the capabilities of the client software.
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Web service A unit of application logic that provides data and services to other applications that can be invoked using standard Internet transport protocols such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Web services can perform functions ranging from simple requests to complicated business processes.
WebControls Reusable ASP+ visual controls that provide a write-once cross-browser solution for several common user interface elements. Microsoft Internet Explorer WebControls render as HTML 3.2 in downlevel browsers and as rich Dynamic HTML (DHTML) Behaviors in uplevel browsers.
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X.509 certificate A cryptographic certificate that contains a vendor's unique name and the public key.

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