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Bulk Copy Without a Format File (ODBC)

 

Applies To: SQL Server 2016 Preview

This sample shows how to use bulk copy functions to create a native mode data file, without a format file. This sample was developed for ODBC version 3.0 or later.

System_CAPS_security Security Note

When possible, use Windows Authentication. If Windows Authentication is not available, prompt users to enter their credentials at run time. Avoid storing credentials in a file. If you must persist credentials, you should encrypt them with the Win32 crypto API.

To bulk copy without a format file

  1. Allocate an environment handle and a connection handle.

  2. Set SQL_COPT_SS_BCP and SQL_BCP_ON to enable bulk copy operations.

  3. Connect to SQL Server.

  4. Call bcp_init to set the following information:

    • The name of the table or view to bulk copy from or to.

    • The name of the data file that contains the data to copy into the database or that receives data when copying from the database.

    • The name of a data file to receive any bulk copy error messages (specify NULL if you do not want a message file).

    • The direction of the copy: DB_IN from the file to the view or table, or DB_OUT to the file from the table or view.

  5. Call bcp_exec to execute the bulk copy operation.

When DB_OUT is set with these steps, the file is created in native format. The file can then be bulk copied into a server by following these same steps, except that DB_OUT is set instead of DB_IN. This works only if both the source and target tables have exactly the same structure.

This sample is not supported on IA64.

You will need an ODBC data source called AdventureWorks, whose default database is the AdventureWorks sample database. (You can download the AdventureWorks sample database from the Microsoft SQL Server Samples and Community Projects home page.) This data source must be based on the ODBC driver that is supplied by the operating system (the driver name is "SQL Server"). If you will build and run this sample as a 32-bit application on a 64-bit operating system, you must create the ODBC data source with the ODBC Administrator in %windir%\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe.

This sample connects to your computer's default SQL Server instance. To connect to a named instance, change the definition of the ODBC data source to specify the instance using the following format: server\namedinstance. By default, SQL Server Express installs to a named instance.

Compile with odbc32.lib and odbcbcp.lib.

// compile with: odbc32.lib odbcbcp.lib
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include <sql.h>
#include <sqlext.h>
#include <odbcss.h>

#define MAXBUFLEN 256

SQLHENV henv = SQL_NULL_HENV;
HDBC hdbc1 = SQL_NULL_HDBC;

void Cleanup() {
   if (hdbc1 != SQL_NULL_HDBC) {
      SQLDisconnect(hdbc1);
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, hdbc1);
   }

   if (henv != SQL_NULL_HENV)
      SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, henv);
}

int main() {
   RETCODE retcode;

   // Bulk copy variables.
   SDWORD cRows;

   // Allocate the ODBC environment and save handle.
   retcode = SQLAllocHandle (SQL_HANDLE_ENV, NULL, &henv);
   if ( (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) && (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS)) {
      printf("SQLAllocHandle(Env) Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);
   }

   // Notify ODBC that this is an ODBC 3.0 app.
   retcode = SQLSetEnvAttr(henv, SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION, (SQLPOINTER) SQL_OV_ODBC3, SQL_IS_INTEGER);
   if ( (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) && (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS)) {
      printf("SQLSetEnvAttr(ODBC version) Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);    
   }

   // Allocate ODBC connection handle, set bulk copy mode, and then connect.
   retcode = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, henv, &hdbc1);
   if ( (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) && (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS)) {
      printf("SQLAllocHandle(hdbc1) Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);
   }

   retcode = SQLSetConnectAttr(hdbc1, SQL_COPT_SS_BCP, (void *)SQL_BCP_ON, SQL_IS_INTEGER);
   if ( (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) && (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS)) {
      printf("SQLSetConnectAttr(hdbc1) Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);
   }

   // Sample uses Integrated Security, create the SQL Server DSN using Windows NT authentication. 
   retcode = SQLConnect(hdbc1, (UCHAR*)"AdventureWorks", SQL_NTS, (UCHAR*)"", SQL_NTS, (UCHAR*)"", SQL_NTS);
   if ( (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS) && (retcode != SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) ) {
      printf("SQLConnect() Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);
   }

   // Initialize the bulk copy.
   retcode = bcp_init(hdbc1, "Purchasing.Vendor", "BCPODBC.bcp", "BCPERROR.out", DB_OUT);
   // Test is for the bulk copy return of SUCCEED, not the ODBC return of SQL_SUCCESS.
   if ( (retcode != SUCCEED) ) {
      printf("bcp_init(hdbc1) Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);
   }

   // Execute the bulk copy.
   retcode = bcp_exec(hdbc1, &cRows);
   if ( (retcode != SUCCEED) ) {
      printf("bcp_exec(hdbc1) Failed\n\n");
      Cleanup();
      return(9);
   }

   printf("Number of rows bulk copied out = %d.\n", cRows);

   // Cleanup
   SQLDisconnect(hdbc1);
   SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, hdbc1);
   SQLFreeHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, henv);
}

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