How to: Configure a Client to Use Specific Network Protocol (SQL Server Configuration Manager)
Microsoft SQL Server supports client communication with the TCP/IP network protocol, the named pipes protocol, and the VIA protocol. The shared memory protocol is also available if the client is connecting to an instance of the Database Engine on the same computer. There are three common methods of selecting the protocol.
Configure all client applications to use the same network protocol by setting the protocol order in SQL Server Configuration Manager.
Configure a single client application to use a different network protocol by creating an alias. For more information, see How to: Create a Server Alias for Use by a Client (SQL Server Configuration Manager).
Some client applications, such as sqlcmd.exe, can specify the protocol as part of the connection string. For more information, see How to: Connect to the Database Engine Using sqlcmd.exe.
The VIA protocol is deprecated. This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature.
To configure a client to use TCP/IP
In SQL Server Configuration Manager, expand SQL Server Native Client Configuration, right-click Client Protocols, and then click Properties.
In the Enabled Protocols box, click the up and down arrows to change the order in which protocols are tried, when attempting to connect to SQL Server. The top protocol in the Enabled Protocols box is the default protocol.
The shared memory protocol is enabled separately by checking the Enabled Shared Memory Protocol box.