SUM (Transact-SQL)

SUM (Transact-SQL)

 

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

Returns the sum of all the values, or only the DISTINCT values, in the expression. SUM can be used with numeric columns only. Null values are ignored.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

  
SUM ( [ ALL | DISTINCT ] expression )  
   OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause )    

-- Azure SQL Data Warehouse and Parallel Data Warehouse  
SUM ( [ ALL | DISTINCT ] expression )  

ALL
Applies the aggregate function to all values. ALL is the default.

DISTINCT
Specifies that SUM return the sum of unique values.

expression
Is a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic, bitwise, and string operators. expression is an expression of the exact numeric or approximate numeric data type category, except for the bit data type. Aggregate functions and subqueries are not permitted. For more information, see Expressions (Transact-SQL).

OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause)
partition_by_clause divides the result set produced by the FROM clause into partitions to which the function is applied. If not specified, the function treats all rows of the query result set as a single group. order_by_clause determines the logical order in which the operation is performed. order_by_clause is required. For more information, see OVER Clause (Transact-SQL).

Returns the summation of all expression values in the most precise expression data type.

Expression resultReturn type
tinyintint
smallintint
intint
bigintbigint
decimal category (p, s)decimal(38, s)
money and smallmoney categorymoney
float and real categoryfloat

SUM is a deterministic function when used without the OVER and ORDER BY clauses. It is nondeterministic when specified with the OVER and ORDER BY clauses. For more information, see Deterministic and Nondeterministic Functions.

A. Using SUM to return summary data

The following examples shows using the SUM function to return summary data in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

SELECT Color, SUM(ListPrice), SUM(StandardCost)  
FROM Production.Product  
WHERE Color IS NOT NULL   
    AND ListPrice != 0.00   
    AND Name LIKE 'Mountain%'  
GROUP BY Color  
ORDER BY Color;  
GO  

Here is the result set.

Color

--------------- --------------------- ---------------------

Black 27404.84 5214.9616

Silver 26462.84 14665.6792

White 19.00 6.7926

(3 row(s) affected)

B. Using the OVER clause

The following example uses the SUM function with the OVER clause to provide a cumulative total of yearly sales for each territory in the Sales.SalesPerson table in the AdventureWorks2012 database. The data is partitioned by TerritoryID and logically ordered by SalesYTD. This means that the SUM function is computed for each territory based on the sales year. Notice that for TerritoryID 1, there are two rows for sales year 2005 representing the two sales people with sales that year. The cumulative sales for these two rows is computed and then the third row representing sales for the year 2006 is included in the computation.

SELECT BusinessEntityID, TerritoryID   
   ,DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) AS SalesYear  
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SalesYTD,1) AS  SalesYTD  
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),AVG(SalesYTD) OVER (PARTITION BY TerritoryID   
                                            ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate)   
                                           ),1) AS MovingAvg  
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SUM(SalesYTD) OVER (PARTITION BY TerritoryID   
                                            ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate)   
                                            ),1) AS CumulativeTotal  
FROM Sales.SalesPerson  
WHERE TerritoryID IS NULL OR TerritoryID < 5  
ORDER BY TerritoryID,SalesYear;  

Here is the result set.

  
BusinessEntityID TerritoryID SalesYear   SalesYTD             MovingAvg            CumulativeTotal  
---------------- ----------- ----------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------  
274              NULL        2005        559,697.56           559,697.56           559,697.56  
287              NULL        2006        519,905.93           539,801.75           1,079,603.50  
285              NULL        2007        172,524.45           417,375.98           1,252,127.95  
283              1           2005        1,573,012.94         1,462,795.04         2,925,590.07  
280              1           2005        1,352,577.13         1,462,795.04         2,925,590.07  
284              1           2006        1,576,562.20         1,500,717.42         4,502,152.27  
275              2           2005        3,763,178.18         3,763,178.18         3,763,178.18  
277              3           2005        3,189,418.37         3,189,418.37         3,189,418.37  
276              4           2005        4,251,368.55         3,354,952.08         6,709,904.17  
281              4           2005        2,458,535.62         3,354,952.08         6,709,904.17  
  
(10 row(s) affected)  
  

In this example, the OVER clause does not include PARTITION BY. This means that the function will be applied to all rows returned by the query. The ORDER BY clause specified in the OVER clause determines the logical order to which the SUM function is applied. The query returns a cumulative total of sales by year for all sales territories specified in the WHERE clause. The ORDER BY clause specified in the SELECT statement determines the order in which the rows of the query are displayed.

SELECT BusinessEntityID, TerritoryID   
   ,DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) AS SalesYear  
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SalesYTD,1) AS  SalesYTD  
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),AVG(SalesYTD) OVER (ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate)   
                                            ),1) AS MovingAvg  
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SUM(SalesYTD) OVER (ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate)   
                                            ),1) AS CumulativeTotal  
FROM Sales.SalesPerson  
WHERE TerritoryID IS NULL OR TerritoryID < 5  
ORDER BY SalesYear;  

Here is the result set.

BusinessEntityID TerritoryID SalesYear   SalesYTD             MovingAvg            CumulativeTotal  
---------------- ----------- ----------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------  
274              NULL        2005        559,697.56           2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
275              2           2005        3,763,178.18         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
276              4           2005        4,251,368.55         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
277              3           2005        3,189,418.37         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
280              1           2005        1,352,577.13         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
281              4           2005        2,458,535.62         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
283              1           2005        1,573,012.94         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35  
284              1           2006        1,576,562.20         2,138,250.72         19,244,256.47  
287              NULL        2006        519,905.93           2,138,250.72         19,244,256.47  
285              NULL        2007        172,524.45           1,941,678.09         19,416,780.93  
(10 row(s) affected)  

C. A simple SUM example

The following example returns the total number of each product sold in the year 2003.

-- Uses AdventureWorks  
  
SELECT ProductKey, SUM(SalesAmount) AS TotalPerProduct  
FROM dbo.FactInternetSales  
WHERE OrderDateKey >= '20030101'   
      AND OrderDateKey < '20040101'  
GROUP BY ProductKey  
ORDER BY ProductKey;  
  

Here is a partial result set.

ProductKey TotalPerProduct

---------- ---------------

214 31421.0200

217 31176.0900

222 29986.4300

225 7956.1500

D. Calculating group totals with more than one column

The following example calculates the sum of the ListPrice and StandardCost for each color listed in the Product table.

-- Uses AdventureWorks  
  
SELECT Color, SUM(ListPrice)AS TotalList,   
       SUM(StandardCost) AS TotalCost  
FROM dbo.DimProduct  
GROUP BY Color  
ORDER BY Color;  

The first part of the result set is shown below:

Color TotalList TotalCost

---------- ------------- --------------

Black 101295.7191 57490.5378

Blue 24082.9484 14772.0524

Grey 125.0000 51.5625

Multi 880.7468 526.4095

NA 3162.3564 1360.6185

Aggregate Functions (Transact-SQL)
OVER Clause (Transact-SQL)

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