Marshaling Overview

[This documentation is for preview only, and is subject to change in later releases. Blank topics are included as placeholders.]

The .NET Compact Framework version 2.0 provides expanded marshaling support through IDispatch and through platform invoke and vtable calls. This support includes the following:

  • Using the MarshalAsAttribute attribute.

  • Marshaling variant types that are supported on Windows Embedded CE.

  • Marshaling types that call COM interfaces through a vtable.

  • Marshaling structures with embedded arrays and strings.

  • Specifying the layout for a structure.

You can marshal the following types either by value or by reference:

  • BStr

  • IUnknown

  • IDispatch

  • SafeArray

  • DateTime (marshaled as an OLE DATE)

  • Variant

Note that the .NET Compact Framework 2.0 supports the AllocHGlobal and FreeHGlobal methods.

You can create log files of the function signatures to see how an interop call is marshaled, and also to isolate errors that may occur during the marshaling process. For information about how to create the files, see How to: Create Log Files. For information about how to interpret the log files, see Log File Information.

The .NET Compact Framework does not support the following marshaling and interoperability features that are provided in the full .NET Framework:

  • Custom marshaling.

  • Obtaining a managed delegate from a native function pointer by using the GetDelegateForFunctionPointer method. You can, however, create a native function pointer from a managed delegate.

  • Accessing .NET Compact Framework classes from native components.

  • Passing structures (VT_RECORD) through IDispatch.

  • Passing Int64 and UInt64 types through IDispatch.

The .NET Compact Framework differs from the full .NET Framework in the following marshaling behaviors:

  • The .NET Compact Framework provides limited support for marshaling fields in structures, elements in arrays, and return types compared to the .NET Framework. For information about overriding default marshaling behavior, see Marshaling Overview.

  • The .NET Compact Framework allows arrays of SCODE values to be marshaled; the full .NET Framework does not.

  • The .NET Compact Framework marshals arrays of IUnknown and IDispatch pointers differently than the full .NET Framework.

  • The .NET Compact Framework initializes all threads as multithreaded apartments and does not support other threading models or setting an apartment model. Consequently, the .NET Compact Framework does not support the ApartmentState property or the following methods:

The Visual Basic Declare statement is an alternative to declare references to external procedures in a DLL. Note that Ansi keyword in the Declare statement is not supported.

Marshaling with the Declare statement is identical to marshaling with the DllImportAttribute class, except for ByVal String objects. In a Declare statement, a ByVal String parameter will be marshaled as an output parameter. Because strings are immutable, this forces the common language runtime to copy the string and return a new reference.

The following table lists the types that are marshaled differently by the two marshalers.



Platform invoke and vtable












C-style array

The .NET Compact Framework marshals a class through platform invoke without the StructLayoutAttribute as an auto-layout structure; the full .NET Framework marshals it as a COM callable wrapper (CCW).

Note that the .NET Compact Framework marks a SafeArray with FADF_FIXEDSIZE and throws an exception if you resize it in native code.

In situations where Boolean translates to a native byte type, you cannot marshal Boolean as a return type; you can marshal it only as an argument.

By default, delegates are marshaled as function pointers. You can also explicitly use the FunctionPtr value from the UnmanagedType enumeration for creating an instance of the MarshalAsAttribute. See Marshaling Delegates as Function Pointers for examples.

You can use the CharSet field of the DllImportAttribute to specify a character set when marshaling strings through platform invoke.

The .NET Compact Framework supports the following two values:

  • Auto . Strings are marshaled by using the appropriate character set for the operating system, which is the Unicode character set. This is the default value.

  • Unicode . Strings are marshaled by using the Unicode character set.

The Ansi value is not supported because Windows Embedded CE is Unicode only. None is equivalent to Ansi and is not supported.

Because the .NET Compact Framework does not support the ExactSpelling field, the common language runtime automatically searches for an entry point according to the values specified by CharSet.

When the .NET Compact Framework common language runtime marshals an object, the object is pinned for the duration of the platform invoke call to ensure that the garbage collector does not free or move the object.

Use the following guidelines for handling memory with unmanaged code in the .NET Compact Framework:

  • Always allocate memory in managed code and pass it to unmanaged code.

  • If unmanaged code holds a pointer to a managed component, you must manually pin the object by using the GCHandle structure.

The .NET Compact Framework common language runtime coinitializes threads at startup and couninitializes them on shutdown. Threads are marked as "free threading".