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Appends a new item to the end of a menu.

BOOL AppendMenu(
   UINT nFlags,
   UINT_PTR nIDNewItem = 0,
   LPCTSTR lpszNewItem = NULL 
BOOL AppendMenu(
   UINT nFlags,
   UINT_PTR nIDNewItem,
   const CBitmap* pBmp 


Specifies information about the state of the new menu item when it is added to the menu. It consists of one or more of the values listed in the Remarks section.
Specifies either the command ID of the new menu item or, if nFlags is set to MF_POPUP, the menu handle (HMENU) of a pop-up menu. The nIDNewItem parameter is ignored (not needed) if nFlags is set to MF_SEPARATOR.
Specifies the content of the new menu item. The nFlags parameter is used to interpret lpszNewItem in the following way:
nFlags Interpretation of lpszNewItem
MF_OWNERDRAW Contains an application-supplied 32-bit value that the application can use to maintain additional data associated with the menu item. This 32-bit value is available to the application when it processes WM_MEASUREITEM and WM_DRAWITEM messages. The value is stored in the itemData member of the structure supplied with those messages.
MF_STRING Contains a pointer to a null-terminated string. This is the default interpretation.
MF_SEPARATOR The lpszNewItem parameter is ignored (not needed).
Points to a CBitmap object that will be used as the menu item.

Return Value

Nonzero if the function is successful; otherwise 0.


The application can specify the state of the menu item by setting values in nFlags. When nIDNewItem specifies a pop-up menu, it becomes part of the menu to which it is appended. If that menu is destroyed, the appended menu will also be destroyed. An appended menu should be detached from a CMenu object to avoid conflict. Note that MF_STRING and MF_OWNERDRAW are not valid for the bitmap version of AppendMenu.

The following list describes the flags that may be set in nFlags:

  • MF_CHECKED   Acts as a toggle with MF_UNCHECKED to place the default check mark next to the item. When the application supplies check-mark bitmaps (see the SetMenuItemBitmaps member function), the "check mark on" bitmap is displayed.
  • MF_UNCHECKED   Acts as a toggle with MF_CHECKED to remove a check mark next to the item. When the application supplies check-mark bitmaps (see the SetMenuItemBitmaps member function), the "check mark off" bitmap is displayed.
  • MF_DISABLED   Disables the menu item so that it cannot be selected but does not dim it.
  • MF_ENABLED   Enables the menu item so that it can be selected and restores it from its dimmed state.
  • MF_GRAYED   Disables the menu item so that it cannot be selected and dims it.
  • MF_MENUBARBREAK   Places the item on a new line in static menus or in a new column in pop-up menus. The new pop-up menu column will be separated from the old column by a vertical dividing line.
  • MF_MENUBREAK   Places the item on a new line in static menus or in a new column in pop-up menus. No dividing line is placed between the columns.
  • MF_OWNERDRAW   Specifies that the item is an owner-draw item. When the menu is displayed for the first time, the window that owns the menu receives a WM_MEASUREITEM message, which retrieves the height and width of the menu item. The WM_DRAWITEM message is the one sent whenever the owner must update the visual appearance of the menu item. This option is not valid for a top-level menu item.
  • MF_POPUP   Specifies that the menu item has a pop-up menu associated with it. The ID parameter specifies a handle to a pop-up menu that is to be associated with the item. This is used for adding either a top-level pop-up menu or a hierarchical pop-up menu to a pop-up menu item.
  • MF_SEPARATOR   Draws a horizontal dividing line. Can only be used in a pop-up menu. This line cannot be dimmed, disabled, or highlighted. Other parameters are ignored.
  • MF_STRING   Specifies that the menu item is a character string.

Each of the following groups lists flags that are mutually exclusive and cannot be used together:

  • MF_STRING, MF_OWNERDRAW, MF_SEPARATOR, and the bitmap version

Whenever a menu that resides in a window is changed (whether or not the window is displayed), the application should call CWnd::DrawMenuBar.


See the example for CMenu::CreateMenu.

See Also

CMenu Overview | Class Members | Hierarchy Chart | CWnd::DrawMenuBar | CMenu::InsertMenu | CMenu::RemoveMenu | CMenu::SetMenuItemBitmaps | CMenu::Detach | AppendMenu

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