Range-based for Statement (C++)

 

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Executes statement repeatedly and sequentially for each element in expression.

  
      for ( for-range-declaration : expression )  
   statement   

Use the range-based for statement to construct loops that must execute through a "range", which is defined as anything that you can iterate through—for example, std::vector, or any other STL sequence whose range is defined by a begin() and end(). The name that is declared in the for-range-declaration portion is local to the for statement and cannot be re-declared in expression or statement. Note that the auto keyword is preferred in the for-range-declaration portion of the statement.

This code shows how to use ranged for loops to iterate through an array and a vector:

  
// range-based-for.cpp  
// compile by using: cl /EHsc /nologo /W4  
#include <iostream>  
#include <vector>  
using namespace std;  
  
int main()   
{  
    // Basic 10-element integer array.  
    int x[10] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 };  
  
    // Range-based for loop to iterate through the array.  
    for( int y : x ) { // Access by value using a copy declared as a specific type.   
                       // Not preferred.  
        cout << y << " ";  
    }  
    cout << endl;  
  
    // The auto keyword causes type inference to be used. Preferred.  
  
    for( auto y : x ) { // Copy of 'x', almost always undesirable  
        cout << y << " ";  
    }  
    cout << endl;  
  
    for( auto &y : x ) { // Type inference by reference.  
        // Observes and/or modifies in-place. Preferred when modify is needed.  
        cout << y << " ";  
    }  
    cout << endl;  
  
    for( const auto &y : x ) { // Type inference by reference.  
        // Observes in-place. Preferred when no modify is needed.  
        cout << y << " ";  
    }  
    cout << endl;  
    cout << "end of integer array test" << endl;  
    cout << endl;  
  
    // Create a vector object that contains 10 elements.  
    vector<double> v;  
    for (int i = 0; i < 10; ++i) {  
        v.push_back(i + 0.14159);  
    }  
  
    // Range-based for loop to iterate through the vector, observing in-place.  
    for( const auto &j : v ) {  
        cout << j << " ";  
    }  
    cout << endl;  
    cout << "end of vector test" << endl;  
}  
  

Here is the output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

end of integer array test

0.14159 1.14159 2.14159 3.14159 4.14159 5.14159 6.14159 7.14159 8.14159 9.14159

end of vector test

A range-based for loop terminates when one of these in statement is executed: a break, return, or goto to a labeled statement outside the range-based for loop. A continue statement in a range-based for loop terminates only the current iteration.

Keep in mind these facts about range-based for:

  • Automatically recognizes arrays.

  • Recognizes containers that have .begin() and .end().

  • Uses argument-dependent lookup begin() and end() for anything else.

auto
Iteration Statements
Keywords
while Statement (C++)
do-while Statement (C++)
for Statement (C++)

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