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<mutex>

<mutex>

Include the standard header <mutex> to define the classes mutex, recursive_mutex, timed_mutex, and recursive_timed_mutex; the templates lock_guard and unique_lock; and supporting types and functions that define mutual-exclusion code regions.

Caution note Caution

The STL synchronization types in Visual Studio 2015 are based on Windows synchronization primitives and no longer use ConcRT (except when the target platform is Windows XP). The types defined in <mutex> should not be used with any ConcRT types or functions.

#include <mutex>

Note Note

In code that is compiled by using /clr or /clr:pure, this header is blocked.

The classes mutex and recursive_mutex are mutex types. A mutex type has a default constructor and a destructor that does not throw exceptions. These objects have methods that provide mutual exclusion when multiple threads try to lock the same object. Specifically, a mutex type contains the methods lock, try_lock, and unlock:

  • The lock method blocks the calling thread until the thread obtains ownership of the mutex. Its return value is ignored.

  • The try_lock method tries to obtain ownership of the mutex without blocking. Its return type is convertible to bool and is true if the method obtains ownership, but is otherwise false.

  • The unlock method releases the ownership of the mutex from the calling thread.

You can use mutex types as type arguments to instantiate the templates lock_guard and unique_lock. You can use objects of these types as the Lock argument to the wait member functions in the template condition_variable_any.

A timed mutex type satisfies the requirements for a mutex type. In addition, it has the try_lock_for and try_lock_until methods that must be callable by using one argument and must return a type that is convertible to bool. A timed mutex type can define these functions by using additional arguments, provided that those additional arguments all have default values.

  • The try_lock_for method must be callable by using one argument, Rel_time, whose type is an instantiation of chrono::duration. The method tries to obtain ownership of the mutex, but returns within the time that is designated by Rel_time, regardless of success. The return value converts to true if the method obtains ownership; otherwise, the return value converts to false.

  • The try_lock_until method must be callable by using one argument, Abs_time, whose type is an instantiation of chrono::time_point. The method tries to obtain ownership of the mutex, but returns no later than the time that is designated by Abs_time, regardless of success. The return value converts to true if the method obtains ownership; otherwise, the return value converts to false.

A mutex type is also known as a lockable type. If it does not provide the member function try_lock, it is a basic lockable type. A timed mutex type is also known as a timed lockable type.

Name

Description

lock_guard Class

Represents a template that can be instantiated to create an object whose destructor unlocks a mutex.

mutex Class (STL)

Represents a mutex type. Use objects of this type to enforce mutual exclusion within a program.

recursive_mutex Class

Represents a mutex type. In constrast to the mutex class, the behavior of calling locking methods for objects that are already locked is well-defined.

recursive_timed_mutex Class

Represents a timed mutex type. Use objects of this type to enforce mutual exclusion that has time-limited blocking within a program. Unlike objects of type timed_mutex, the effect of calling locking methods for recursive_timed_mutex objects is well-defined.

timed_mutex Class

Represents a timed mutex type. Use objects of this type to enforce mutual exclusion that has time-limited blocking within a program.

unique_lock Class

Represents a template that can be instantiated to create objects that manage the locking and unlocking of a mutex.

Name

Description

call_once Function

Provides a mechanism for calling a specified callable object exactly once during execution.

lock Function

Attempts to lock all arguments without deadlock.

Name

Description

adopt_lock_t Structure

Represents a type that is used to define an adopt_lock.

defer_lock_t Structure

Represents a type that defines a defer_lock object that is used to select one of the overloaded constructors of unique_lock.

once_flag Structure

Represents a struct that is used with the template function call_once to ensure that initialization code is called only once, even in the presence of multiple threads of execution.

try_to_lock_t Structure

Represents a struct that defines a try_to_lock object and is used to select one of the overloaded constructors of unique_lock.

Name

Description

adopt_lock Variable

Represents an object that can be passed to constructors for lock_guard and unique_lock to indicate that the mutex object that is also being passed to the constructor is locked.

defer_lock Variable

Represents an object that can be passed to the constructor for unique_lock, to indicate that the constructor should not lock the mutex object that is also being passed to it.

try_to_lock Variable

Represents an object that can be passed to the constructor for unique_lock to indicate that the constructor should try to unlock the mutex that is also being passed to it without blocking.

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