Include the standard header <future> to define template classes and supporting templates that simplify running a function—possibly in a separate thread—and retrieving its result. The result is either the value that is returned by the function or an exception that is emitted by the function but is not caught in the function.
This header uses Concurrency Runtime (ConcRT) so that you can use it together with other ConcRT mechanisms. For more information about ConcRT, see Concurrency Runtime.
In code that is compiled by using /clr or /clr:pure, this header is blocked.
An asynchronous provider stores the result of a function call. An asynchronous return object is used to retrieve the result of a function call. An associated asynchronous state provides communication between an asynchronous provider and one or more asynchronous return objects.
A program does not directly create any associated asynchronous state objects. The program creates an asynchronous provider whenever it needs one and from that it creates an asynchronous return object that shares its associated asynchronous state with the provider. Asynchronous providers and asynchronous return objects manage the objects that hold their shared associated asynchronous state. When the last object that references the associated asynchronous state releases it, the object that holds the associated asynchronous state is destroyed.
An asynchronous provider or an asynchronous return object that has no associated asynchronous state is empty.
An associated asynchronous state is ready only if its asynchronous provider has stored a return value or stored an exception.
The template function async and the template classes promise and packaged_task are asynchronous providers. The template classes future and shared_future describe asynchronous return objects.
Each of the template classes promise, future, and shared_future has a specialization for the type void and a partial specialization for storing and retrieving a value by reference. These specializations differ from the primary template only in the signatures and semantics of the functions that store and retrieve the returned value.
The template classes future and shared_future never block in their destructors, except in one case that's preserved for backward compatibility: Unlike all other futures, for a future—or the last shared_future—that's attached to a task started with std::async, the destructor blocks if the task has not completed; that is, it blocks if this thread did not yet call .get() or .wait() and the task is still running. The following usability note has been added to the description of std::async in the draft standard: "[Note: If a future obtained from std::async is moved outside the local scope, other code that uses the future must be aware that the future’s destructor may block for the shared state to become ready.—end note]" In all other cases, future and shared_future destructors are required and are guaranteed to never block.
Describes an asynchronous return object.
Describes an exception object that can be thrown by methods of types that manage future objects.
Describes an asynchronous provider that is a call wrapper and whose call signature is Ty(ArgTypes...). Its associated asynchronous state holds a copy of its callable object in addition to the potential result.
Describes an asynchronous provider.
Describes an asynchronous return object. In contrast with a future object, an asynchronous provider can be associated with any number of shared_future objects.
Represents an asynchronous provider.
Returns a reference to the error_category object that characterizes errors that are associated with future objects.
Creates an error_code that has the error_category object that characterizes future errors.
Creates an error_condition that has the error_category object that characterizes future errors.
Exchanges the associated asynchronous state of one promise object with that of another.
Supplies symbolic names for the errors that are reported by the future_error class.
Supplies symbolic names for the reasons that a timed wait function can return.
Represents a bitmask type that describes the possible modes for the template function async.