4.8 Establish Alternate Channel

The following diagram demonstrates the steps taken to establish an alternate channel.

Establishing an alternate channel

Figure 13: Establishing an alternate channel

  1. The client sends an SMB2 NEGOTIATE Request with dialect 0x300 in the Dialects array, and SMB2_GLOBAL_CAP_MULTI_CHANNEL(0x00000008) bit set in Capabilities.

     SMB2: C   NEGOTIATE (0x0), ClientGUID={F62E4D0B-C685-E48B-40B6-D815CB56FF6E}
     CNegotiate: 
     StructureSize: 36 (0x24)
     DialectCount: 3 (0x3)
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     SMB2NEGOTIATESIGNINGENABLED:  (...............1) security signatures are enabled on the client.
     SMB2NEGOTIATESIGNINGREQUIRED: (..............0.) security signatures are not required by the client.
     Reserved:                     (00000000000000..) Reserved
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     Capabilities: 0x7F
     ClientGuid: {F62E4D0B-C685-E48B-40B6-D815CB56FF6E}
     ClientStartTime: No Time Specified (0)
     Dialects: 
     Dialects: 514 (0x202)
     Dialects: 528 (0x210)
     Dialects: 768 (0x300)
      
    
  2. The server receives the SMB2 NEGOTIATE Request and finds dialect 0x0300. The server responds with an SMB2 NEGOTIATE Response with dialect 0x300 in the DialectRevision, and the SMB2_GLOBAL_CAP_MULTI_CHANNEL(0x00000008) bit set in Capabilities.

     SMB2: R   NEGOTIATE (0x0), ServerGUID={1B005379-8063-F0B6-4907-4957998700A1}
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: R NEGOTIATE (0x0),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0000, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x0000
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     Status: 0x0, Code = (0) STATUS_SUCCESS, Facility = FACILITY_SYSTEM, Severity = STATUS_SEVERITY_SUCCESS
     Flags: 0x1
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 0 (0x0)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 0 (0x0)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     RNegotiate: 
     StructureSize: 65 (0x41)
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     SMB2NEGOTIATESIGNINGENABLED:  (...............1) security signatures are enabled on the client.
     SMB2NEGOTIATESIGNINGREQUIRED: (..............0.) security signatures are not required by the client.
     Reserved:                     (00000000000000..) Reserved
     DialectRevision: (0x300) - SMB 3.0 dialect revision number.
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     ServerGuid: {1B005379-8063-F0B6-4907-4957998700A1}
     Capabilities: 0x7F
     MaxTransactSize: 1048576 (0x100000)
     MaxReadSize: 1048576 (0x100000)
     MaxWriteSize: 1048576 (0x100000)
     SystemTime: 05/11/2012, 06:41:20.036527 UTC
     ServerStartTime: 05/10/2012, 09:56:03.345351 UTC
     SecurityBufferOffset: 128 (0x80)
     SecurityBufferLength: 120 (0x78)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
      
    
  3. The client queries GSS for the authentication token and sends an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Request with the output token received from GSS.

     SMB2: C   SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     CSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 25 (0x19)
     Flags: 0 (0x0)
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)      
     Capabilities: 0x1      
     Channel: 0 (0x0)
     SecurityBufferOffset: 88 (0x58)
     SecurityBufferLength: 74 (0x4A)
     PreviousSessionId: 0 (0x0)
     securityBlob:  
      
    
  4. The server processes the token received with GSS and gets a return code. The GSS return code indicates that an additional exchange is required to complete the authentication. The server responds to the client with an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Response with Status equal to STATUS_MORE_PROCESSING_REQUIRED and the response containing the output token from GSS.

     SMB2: R  - NT Status: System - Error, Code = (22) STATUS_MORE_PROCESSING_REQUIRED  SESSION SETUP (0x1), SessionFlags=0x0
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: R SESSION SETUP (0x1),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0001, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     Status: 0xC0000016, Code = (22) STATUS_MORE_PROCESSING_REQUIRED, Facility = FACILITY_SYSTEM, Severity = STATUS_SEVERITY_ERROR
     Command: SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     Credits: 1 (0x1)
     Flags: 0x1
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 1 (0x1)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     RSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 9 (0x9)
     SessionFlags: 0x0
     SecurityBufferOffset: 72 (0x48)
     SecurityBufferLength: 349 (0x15D)
      
    
  5. The client processes the received token with GSS and sends an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Request with the output token received from GSS and the SessionId received on the previous response.

     SMB2: C   SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: C SESSION SETUP (0x1),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0002, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     ChannelSequence: (0x0) - (SMB 3.00 and later only)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     Command: SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     Credits: 10 (0xA)
     Flags: 0x0
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 2 (0x2)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     SMB2: C   SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     CSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 25 (0x19)
     Flags: 0 (0x0)
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     Capabilities: 0x1      
     Channel: 0 (0x0)
     SecurityBufferOffset: 88 (0x58)
     SecurityBufferLength: 625 (0x271)
     PreviousSessionId: 0 (0x0)
      
    
  6. The server processes the token received with GSS and gets a successful return code. The server responds to the client with an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Response with Status equal to STATUS_SUCCESS and the response containing the output token from GSS.

     SMB2: R   SESSION SETUP (0x1), SessionFlags=0x0
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: R SESSION SETUP (0x1),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0002, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     Status: 0x0, Code = (0) STATUS_SUCCESS, Facility = FACILITY_SYSTEM, Severity = STATUS_SEVERITY_SUCCESS
     Flags: 0x9
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 2 (0x2)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     RSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 9 (0x9)
     SessionFlags: 0x0
     SecurityBufferOffset: 72 (0x48)
     SecurityBufferLength: 29 (0x1D)
      
    
  7. The client completes the authentication and sends an SMB2 TREE_CONNECT Request with the SsessionId for the session, and a tree connect request containing the Unicode share name "\\smb2server\share".

     SMB2: C   TREE CONNECT (0x3), Path:\\smb2server\share 
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: C TREE CONNECT (0x3),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0003, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     ChannelSequence: (0x0) - (SMB 3.00 and later only)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     Command: TREE CONNECT (0x3)
     Credits: 10 (0xA)
     Flags: 0x0
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 3 (0x3)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     CTreeConnect: 
     StructureSize: 9 (0x9)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     PathOffset: 72 (0x48)
     PathLength: 42 (0x2A)
     Path:\\smb2server\share
      
    
  8. The server responds with an SMB2 TREE_CONNECT Response with the MessageId of 3, the CreditResponse of 5, the Status equal to STATUS_SUCCESS, the SessionId of 0x8040030000075, and TreeId set to the locally generated identifier 0x1.

     SMB2: R   TREE CONNECT (0x3), TID=0x1
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: R TREE CONNECT (0x3),TID=0x0001, MID=0x0003, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     Status: 0x0, Code = (0) STATUS_SUCCESS, Facility = FACILITY_SYSTEM, Severity = STATUS_SEVERITY_SUCCESS
     Flags: 0x1
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 3 (0x3)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 1 (0x1)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     RTreeConnect: 0x1
     StructureSize: 16 (0x10)
     ShareType: Disk (0x1)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     ShareFlags: 2048 (0x800)
     Capabilities: 0x0
     MaximalAccess: 0x1F01FF
      
    
  9. The client sends a FSCTL_VALIDATE_NEGOTIATE_INFO IOCTL request with the Dialects array set to 0x202, 0x210, and 0x300, along with the expected server capabilities, security mode, and GUID, to protect against a downgrade attack.

     SMB2: C   IOCTL (0xb), FID=0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, FSCTL_VALIDATE_NEGOTIATE_INFO
     CIoCtl: 
     StructureSize: 57 (0x39)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     CtlCode: FSCTL_VALIDATE_NEGOTIATE_INFO
     FileId: Persistent: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, Volatile: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
     Persistent: 18446744073709551615 (0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
     volatile: 18446744073709551615 (0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
     InputOffset: 120 (0x78)
     InputCount: 30 (0x1E)
     MaxInputResponse: 0 (0x0)
     OutputOffset: 120 (0x78)
     OutputCount: 0 (0x0)
     MaxOutputResponse: 24 (0x18)
     Flags: (00000000000000000000000000000001) FSCTL request
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     ValidateNegotiate: 
     Capabilities: 0x7F
     Guid: {F62E4D0B-C685-E48B-40B6-D815CB56FF6E}
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     DialectCount: 3 (0x3)
     Dialects: 
     Dialects: 514 (0x202)
     Dialects: 528 (0x210)
     Dialects: 768 (0x300)
      
    
  10. The server determines that dialect, capabilities, security mode, and GUID are as expected, and sends an FSCTL_VALIDATE_NEGOTIATE_INFO IOCTL Response with the established values for the connection in an SMB2 IOCTL Response. Upon receiving and validating these, the client successfully validates the end-to-end negotiation and processing proceeds to using the session.

     SMB2: R   IOCTL (0xb), FSCTL_VALIDATE_NEGOTIATE_INFO
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: R IOCTL (0xb),TID=0x0001, MID=0x0004, PID=0x000D, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 1 (0x1)
     Status: 0x0, Code = (0) STATUS_SUCCESS, Facility = FACILITY_SYSTEM, Severity = STATUS_SEVERITY_SUCCESS
     Flags: 0x9
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 4 (0x4)
     Reserved: 13 (0xD)
     TreeId: 1 (0x1)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     RIoCtl: 
     StructureSize: 49 (0x31)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     CtlCode: FSCTL_VALIDATE_NEGOTIATE_INFO
     FileId: Persistent: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, Volatile: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
     Persistent: 18446744073709551615 (0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
     volatile: 18446744073709551615 (0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
     InputOffset: 112 (0x70)
     InputCount: 0 (0x0)
     OutputOffset: 112 (0x70)
     OutputCount: 24 (0x18)
     Flags: 0 (0x0)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     ValidateNegotiate: 
     Capabilities: 0x7F
     Dialect: 768 (0x300)
    
  11. To establish an alternative channel, the client sends an FSCTL_QUERY_NETWORK_INTERFACE_INFO IOCTL request to query the available network interface on the server.

     SMB2: C   IOCTL (0xb), FID=0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, FSCTL_QUERY_NETWORK_INTERFACE_INFO
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: C IOCTL (0xb),TID=0x0001, MID=0x0005, PID=0x000D, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 1 (0x1)
     ChannelSequence: (0x0) - (SMB 3.00 and later only)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     Command: IOCTL (0xb)
     Credits: 10 (0xA)
     Flags: 0x0
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 5 (0x5)
     Reserved: 13 (0xD)
     TreeId: 1 (0x1)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     CIoCtl: 
     StructureSize: 57 (0x39)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     CtlCode: FSCTL_QUERY_NETWORK_INTERFACE_INFO
     FileId: Persistent: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, Volatile: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
     InputOffset: 0 (0x0)
     InputCount: 0 (0x0)
     MaxInputResponse: 0 (0x0)
     OutputOffset: 0 (0x0)
     OutputCount: 0 (0x0)
     MaxOutputResponse: 1000 (0x3E8)
     Flags: (00000000000000000000000000000001) FSCTL request
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
    
  12. The server sends a NETWORK_INTERFACE_INFO Response in an SMB2 IOCTL Response with the available network interfaces.

     SMB2: R   IOCTL (0xb), FSCTL_QUERY_NETWORK_INTERFACE_INFO
     RIoCtl: 
     StructureSize: 49 (0x31)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     CtlCode: FSCTL_QUERY_NETWORK_INTERFACE_INFO
     FileId: Persistent: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF, Volatile: 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
     InputOffset: 112 (0x70)
     InputCount: 0 (0x0)
     OutputOffset: 112 (0x70)
     OutputCount: 912 (0x390)
     Flags: 0 (0x0)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     InterfaceInfo:
     Next: 152 (0x98)
     IfIndex: 12 (0xC)
     Capability: 1 (0x1)
     RSSCapable: 1 (0x1)
     RDMACapable: 0 (0x0)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     LinkSpeed: 10000000000 (0x2540BE400)
     SockAddr: 172.25.220.21:0
     Family: 2 (0x2)
     IPv4: 172.25.220.21:0
     Port: 0 (0x0)
     Address: 172.25.220.21
     Reserved: Binary Large Object (8 Bytes)
     EntryPadding: Binary Large Object (112 Bytes)   
      
    
  13. The client selects any one network interface pair to establish a new connection, and sends an SMB2 NEGOTIATE Request with dialect 0x300 in the Dialects array, and SMB2_GLOBAL_CAP_MULTI_CHANNEL(0x00000008) bit set in Capabilities.

     SMB2: C   NEGOTIATE (0x0), ClientGUID={F62E4D0B-C685-E48B-40B6-D815CB56FF6E}
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: C NEGOTIATE (0x0),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0000, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x0000
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     ChannelSequence: (0x0) - (SMB 3.00 and later only)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     Command: NEGOTIATE (0x0)
     Credits: 10 (0xA)
     Flags: 0x0      
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 0 (0x0)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 0 (0x0)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     CNegotiate: 
     StructureSize: 36 (0x24)
     DialectCount: 3 (0x3)
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)      
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     Capabilities: 0x3F      
     ClientGuid: {F62E4D0B-C685-E48B-40B6-D815CB56FF6E}
     ClientStartTime: No Time Specified (0)
     Dialects: 
     Dialects: 514 (0x202)
     Dialects: 528 (0x210)
     Dialects: 768 (0x300)
    
  14. The server responds with an SMB2 NEGOTIATE Response with dialect 0x300 in the DialectRevision, and SMB2_GLOBAL_CAP_MULTI_CHANNEL(0x00000008) bit set in Capabilities.

     SMB2: R   NEGOTIATE (0x0), ServerGUID={1B005379-8063-F0B6-4907-4957998700A1}
     RNegotiate: 
     StructureSize: 65 (0x41)
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     DialectRevision: (0x300) - SMB 3.0 dialect revision number.
     Reserved: 0 (0x0)
     ServerGuid: {1B005379-8063-F0B6-4907-4957998700A1}
     Capabilities: 0x3F      
     MaxTransactSize: 1048576 (0x100000)
     MaxReadSize: 1048576 (0x100000)
     MaxWriteSize: 1048576 (0x100000)
     SystemTime: 05/11/2012, 06:41:49.996099 UTC
     ServerStartTime: 05/10/2012, 09:56:03.345351 UTC
     SecurityBufferOffset: 128 (0x80)
     SecurityBufferLength: 120 (0x78)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
      
    
  15. The client sends an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Request with SMB2_SESSION_FLAG_BINDING set in the Flags field and previous channel/session SessionId (0x4040104000001) set in the Header, PreviousSessionId field set to 0, and sign the message using Session.SigningKey derived from AES-128-CMAC. Because the request and response are signed, the client does not need to revalidate the negotiation.

     SMB2: C   SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     SMBIdentifier: SMB
     SMB2Header: C SESSION SETUP (0x1),TID=0x0000, MID=0x0001, PID=0xFEFF, SID=0x4000001
     StructureSize: 64 (0x40)
     CreditCharge: 0 (0x0)
     ChannelSequence: (0x0) - (SMB 3.00 and later only)
     Reserved2: 0 (0x0)
     Command: SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     Credits: 10 (0xA)
     Flags: 0x8      
     NextCommand: 0 (0x0)
     MessageId: 1 (0x1)
     Reserved: 65279 (0xFEFF)
     TreeId: 0 (0x0)
     SessionId: 1130302315429889 (0x4040104000001)
     Signature: Binary Large Object (16 Bytes)
     CSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 25 (0x19)
     Flags: 1 (0x1)
     SessionBind: (.......1) bind this connection to an existing session (specified in PreviousSessionId)
     Reserved:    (0000000.) Reserved
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     Capabilities: 0x1
     Channel: 0 (0x0)
     SecurityBufferOffset: 88 (0x58)
     SecurityBufferLength: 74 (0x4A)
     PreviousSessionId: 0 (0x0)
      
    
  16. The server processes the token received with GSS and gets a return code. The GSS return code indicates that an additional exchange is required to complete the authentication. The server responds to the client with an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Response with Status equal to STATUS_MORE_PROCESSING_REQUIRED and the response containing the output token from GSS.

     SMB2: R  - NT Status: System - Error, Code = (22) STATUS_MORE_PROCESSING_REQUIRED  SESSION SETUP (0x1), SessionFlags=0x0
     RSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 9 (0x9)
     SessionFlags: 0x0
     GU:                (...............0) NOT a guest user
     NU:                (..............0.) NOT a NULL user
     Reserved_bits2_15: (00000000000000..) Reserved
     SecurityBufferOffset: 72 (0x48)
     SecurityBufferLength: 349 (0x15D)
      
    
  17. The client processes the received token with GSS and sends an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Request with the output token received from GSS and the SessionId received on the response.

     SMB2: C   SESSION SETUP (0x1)
     CSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 25 (0x19) 
     Flags: 1 (0x1)
     SessionBind: (.......1) bind this connection to an existing session (specified in PreviousSessionId)
     Reserved:    (0000000.) Reserved
     SecurityMode: 1 (0x1)
     Capabilities: 0x1
     Channel: 0 (0x0)
     SecurityBufferOffset: 88 (0x58)
     SecurityBufferLength: 625 (0x271)
     PreviousSessionId: 0 (0x0)
      
    
  18. The server processes the token received with GSS and gets a successful return code. The server responds to the client with an SMB2 SESSION_SETUP Response with Status equal to STATUS_SUCCESS and the response containing the output token from GSS.

     SMB2: R   SESSION SETUP (0x1), SessionFlags=0x0
     SMBIdByte: 254 (0xFE)
     RSessionSetup: 
     StructureSize: 9 (0x9)
     SessionFlags: 0x0
     GU:                (...............0) NOT a guest user
     NU:                (..............0.) NOT a NULL user
     Reserved_bits2_15: (00000000000000..) Reserved
     SecurityBufferOffset: 72 (0x48)
     SecurityBufferLength: 29 (0x1D)
     securityBlob:
    
  19. An alternate channel has been established for the session.

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