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Hardware Resources for User-Mode SPB Peripheral Drivers

The code examples in this topic show how the User-Mode Driver Framework (UMDF) driver for a peripheral device on a simple peripheral bus (SPB) obtains the hardware resources that it requires to operate the device. Included in these resources is the information that the driver uses to establish a logical connection to the device. Additional resources might include an interrupt, and one or more GPIO input or output pins. (A GPIO pin is a pin on a general-purpose I/O controller device that is configured as an input or an output; for more information, see GPIO Controller Drivers.) Unlike a device that is memory-mapped, an SPB-connected peripheral device doesn't require a block of system memory addresses to map its registers into.

This driver implements an IPnpCallbackHardware2 interface, and registers this interface with the UMDF during the call to the driver's IDriverEntry::OnDeviceAdd method. The framework calls the methods in the IPnpCallbackHardware2 interface to notify the driver of changes in the device's power state.

When power is restored to the SPB-connected peripheral device, the driver framework calls the IPnpCallbackHardware2::OnPrepareHardware method to notify the driver that this device must be prepared for use. During this call, the driver receives two lists of hardware resources as input parameters. The pWdfResourcesRaw parameter points to the list of raw resources, and the pWdfResourcesTranslated parameter points to the list of translated resources. Both parameters are pointers to IWDFCmResourceList objects. The translated resources include the connection ID that the SPB peripheral driver needs to establish a logical connection to the SPB-connected peripheral device. For more information, see Connection IDs for SPB Peripheral Devices.

To enable a UMDF peripheral driver to receive connection IDs in its resource list, the INF file that installs the driver must include the following directive in its WDF-specific DDInstall section:

UmdfDirectHardwareAccess = AllowDirectHardwareAccess

For more information about this directive, see Specifying WDF Directives in INF Files.

The following code example shows how the driver's OnPrepareHardware method obtains the connection ID from the pWdfResourcesTranslated parameter.


BOOLEAN fConnectIdFound = FALSE;
BOOLEAN fDuplicateFound = FALSE;
LARGE_INTEGER connectionId = 0;
ULONG resourceCount;

resourceCount = pWdfResourcesTranslated->GetCount();

// Loop through the resources and save the relevant ones.
for (ULONG ix = 0; ix < resourceCount; ix++)
{
    PCM_PARTIAL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR pDescriptor;

    pDescriptor = pWdfResourcesTranslated->GetDescriptor(ix);

    if (pDescriptor == NULL)
    {
        hr = E_POINTER;
        break;
    }

    // Determine the resource type.
    switch (pDescriptor->Type)
    {
    case CmResourceTypeConnection:
        {
            // Check against the expected connection types.
            UCHAR Class = pDescriptor->u.Connection.Class;
            UCHAR Type = pDescriptor->u.Connection.Type;

            if (Class == CM_RESOURCE_CONNECTION_CLASS_SERIAL)
            {
                if (Type == CM_RESOURCE_CONNECTION_TYPE_SERIAL_I2C)
                {
                    if (fConnIdFound == FALSE)
                    {
                        // Save the SPB connection ID.
                        connectionId.LowPart = pDescriptor->u.Connection.IdLowPart;
                        connectionId.HighPart = pDescriptor->u.Connection.IdHighPart;
                        fConnectIdFound = TRUE;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        fDuplicateFound = TRUE;
                    }
                }
            }

            if (Class == CM_RESOURCE_CONNECTION_CLASS_GPIO)
            {
                // Check for GPIO pin resource.
                ...
            }
        }
        break;

    case CmResourceTypeInterrupt:
        {
            // Check for interrupt resources.
            ...
        }
        break;

    default:
        // Ignore all other resource descriptors.
        break;
    }
}

The preceding code example copies the connection ID for an SPB-connected peripheral device into a variable named connectionId. The following code example shows how to incorporate the connection ID into a device path name that can be used to identify the peripheral device.


WCHAR szTargetPath[100];
HRESULT hres;

// Create the device path using the well-known resource hub
// path name and the connection ID.
//
// TODO: Replace this hardcoded string with the appropriate
//       helper method from Reshub.h when available.
hres = StringCbPrintfW(&szTargetPath[0],
                       sizeof(szTargetPath),
                       L"\\\\.\\RESOURCE_HUB\\%0*I64x",
                       (size_t)(sizeof(LARGE_INTEGER) * 2),
                       connectionId.QuadPart);
if (FAILED(hres))
{
     // Error handling
     ...
}

The preceding code example writes the path name for the SPB-connected peripheral device into the szTargetPath array. The following code example uses this device path name to open a file handle to the SPB-connected peripheral device.


UMDF_IO_TARGET_OPEN_PARAMS openParams;

openParams.dwShareMode = 0;
openParams.dwCreationDisposition = OPEN_EXISTING;
openParams.dwFlagsAndAttributes = FILE_FLAG_OVERLAPPED;
hres = pRemoteTarget->OpenFileByName(&szTargetPath[0],
                                     (GENERIC_READ | GENERIC_WRITE),
                                     &openParams);
if (FAILED(hres))
{
    // Error handling
    ...
}

In the preceding code example, the pRemoteTarget variable is a pointer to an IWDFRemoteTarget object. If the call to the IWDFRemoteTarget::OpenFileByName method succeeds, the driver for the SPB-connected peripheral device can use the IWDFRemoteTarget object to send I/O requests to the peripheral device. Before the driver sends a read, write, or IOCTL request to the peripheral device, the driver calls the IWDFRemoteTarget::FormatRequestForRead, IWDFRemoteTarget::FormatRequestForWrite, or IWDFRemoteTarget::FormatRequestForIoctl method to format the I/O request. The IWDFRemoteTarget interface inherits these three methods from the IWDFIoTarget interface. Next, the driver calls the IWDFIoRequest::Send method to send the I/O request to the SPB-connected peripheral device.

In the following code example, the SPB peripheral driver calls the Send method to send an IRP_MJ_WRITE request to the SPB-connected peripheral device.


HRESULT hres;
IWDFMemory *pInputMemory = NULL;
IWDFRemoteTarget *pWdfIoRequest = NULL;

// Create a new I/O request.
if (SUCCEEDED(hres))
{
    hres = pWdfDevice->CreateRequest(NULL, 
                                     pWdfDevice, 
                                     &pWdfIoRequest);
    if (FAILED(hres))
    {
        // Error handling
        ...
    }
}

// Allocate memory for the input buffer.
if (SUCCEEDED(hres))
{
    hres = pWdfDriver->CreatePreallocatedWdfMemory(pInBuffer, 
                                                   inBufferSize, 
                                                   NULL,
                                                   pWdfIoRequest,
                                                   &pInputMemory);
    if (FAILED(hres))
    {
        // Error handling
        ...
    }

    // After this call, the parent holds the only reference.
    pWdfMemory->Release();
}

// Format the I/O request for a write operation.
if (SUCCEEDED(hres))
{
    hres = pRemoteTarget->FormatRequestForWrite(pWdfIoRequest,
                                                NULL,
                                                pInputMemory, 
                                                NULL, 
                                                0);
    if (FAILED(hres))
    {
        // Error handling
        ...
    }
}

// Send the request to the SPB controller.
if (SUCCEEDED(hres))
{
    ULONG Flags = fSynchronous ? WDF_REQUEST_SEND_OPTION_SYNCHRONOUS : 0;

    // Set the I/O completion callback.
    if (!fSynchronous)
    {
        pWdfIoRequest->SetCompletionCallback(pCallback, NULL);
    }

    hres = pWdfIoRequest->Send(pRemoteTarget, Flags, 0);
    if (FAILED(hres))
    {
        // Error handling
        ...
    }
}

if (fSynchronous || FAILED(hres))
{
    pWdfIoRequest->DeleteWdfObject();
    SAFE_RELEASE(pWdfIoRequest);
}

The preceding code example does the following:

  1. The pWdfDevice variable is a pointer to the IWDFDevice interface of the framework device object that represents the SPB-connected peripheral device. The IWDFDevice::CreateRequest method creates an I/O request and encapsulates this request in the IWDFIoRequest interface instance that is pointed to by the pWdfIoRequest variable.
  2. The pWdfDriver variable is a pointer to the IWDFDriver interface of the framework driver object that represents the SPB peripheral driver. The pInBuffer and inBufferSize variables specify the address and size of the input buffer that contains the data for the write request. The IWDFDriver::CreatePreallocatedWdfMemory method creates a framework memory object for the input buffer, and designates the IWDFIoRequest object pointed to by pWdfIoRequest as the memory object's parent object (so that the memory object is automatically released when its parent is released). After the driver calls the Release method to release its local reference to the memory object, the parent holds the sole reference to this object.
  3. The pWdfRemoteTarget variable is the remote target pointer that was obtained from the OpenFileByName call in an earlier code example. The IWDFRemoteTarget::FormatRequestForWrite method formats the I/O request for a write operation.
  4. The fSynchronous variable is TRUE if the write request is to be sent synchronously, and is FALSE if it is to be sent asynchronously. The pCallback variable is a pointer to a previously created IRequestCallbackRequestCompletion interface. If the request is to be sent asynchronously, the call to the IWDFIoRequest::SetCompletionCallback method registers this interface. Later, the IRequestCallbackRequestCompletion::OnCompletion method is called to notify the driver when the request asynchronously completes.
  5. The Send method sends the formatted write request to the SPB-connected peripheral device. The Flags variable indicates whether the write request is to be sent synchronously or asynchronously.
  6. If the request is sent synchronously, the IWDFIoRequest::DeleteWdfObject method deletes both the I/O request object pointed to by pWdfIoRequest and the child object pointed to by pInputMemory. The IWDFIoRequest interface inherits this method from the IWDFObject interface. If the request is sent asynchronously, the call to the DeleteWdfObject method should occur later, in the driver's OnCompletion method.

An alternative implementation of the preceding code example might create IWDFIoRequest and IWDFMemory objects during driver initialization, and repeatedly use these same objects instead of creating and deleting new objects each time an I/O request is sent. For more information, see IWDFIoRequest2::Reuse and IWDFMemory::SetBuffer.

In addition, an alternative implementation might inspect the I/O status code from the I/O request if the Send call succeeds. For more information, see IWDFIoRequest::GetCompletionParams.

 

 

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