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Connecting a KMDF Driver to GPIO I/O Pins

A GPIO I/O resource is a set of one or more GPIO pins that are configured as data inputs or data outputs. The driver for a peripheral device that physically connects to these pins acquires the corresponding GPIO I/O resource from the operating system. The peripheral device driver opens a connection to the GPIO pins in this resource and sends I/O requests to the handle that represents this connection.

The following code example shows how the kernel-mode driver framework (KMDF) driver for a peripheral device can obtain a description of the GPIO I/O resource that the Plug and Play (PnP) manager has assigned to the driver.


NTSTATUS
  EvtDevicePrepareHardware(
    _In_ WDFDEVICE Device,
    _In_ WDFCMRESLIST ResourcesRaw,
    _In_ WDFCMRESLIST ResourcesTranslated
    )
{
    int ResourceCount, Index;
    PCM_PARTIAL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTOR Descriptor;
    XYZ_DEVICE_CONTEXT *DeviceExtension;

    ...

    DeviceExtension = XyzDrvGetDeviceExtension(Device);
    ResourceCount = WdfCmResourceListGetCount(ResourcesTranslated);
    for (Index = 0; Index < ResourceCount; Index += 1) {
        Descriptor = WdfCmResourceListGetDescriptor(ResourcesTranslated, Index);
        switch (Descriptor->Type) {

        //
        // GPIO I/O descriptors
        //

        case CmResourceTypeConnection:

            //
            // Check against expected connection type.
            //

            if ((Descriptor->u.Connection.Class == CM_RESOURCE_CONNECTION_CLASS_GPIO) &&
                (Descriptor->u.Connection.Type == CM_RESOURCE_CONNECTION_TYPE_GPIO_IO)) {

                DeviceExtension->ConnectionId.LowPart = Descriptor->u.Connection.IdLowPart;
                DeviceExtension->ConnectionId.HighPart = Descriptor->u.Connection.IdHighPart;

        ...

}

In the preceding code example, the DeviceExtension variable is a pointer to the device context for the peripheral device. The XyzDrvGetDeviceExtension function, which retrieves this device context, is implemented by the peripheral device driver. This driver previously registered its EvtDevicePrepareHardware callback function by calling the WdfDeviceInitSetPnpPowerEventCallbacks method.

The following code example shows how the peripheral device driver can use the GPIO resource description that it obtained in the previous code example to open a WDFIOTARGET handle to the driver's GPIO I/O resource.



NTSTATUS IoRoutine(WDFDEVICE Device, BOOLEAN ReadOperation) 
{
    WDFIOTARGET IoTarget;
    XYZ_DEVICE_CONTEXT *DeviceExtension;
    UNICODE_STRING ReadString;
    WCHAR ReadStringBuffer[100];;
    BOOL DesiredAccess;
    NTSTATUS Status;
    WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes;
    WDF_IO_TARGET_OPEN_PARAMS OpenParams

    DeviceExtension = XyzDrvGetDeviceExtension(Device);
    RtlInitEmptyUnicodeString(&ReadString,
                              ReadStringBuffer,
                              sizeof(ReadStringBuffer));

    Status = RESOURCE_HUB_CREATE_PATH_FROM_ID(&ReadString,
                                              DeviceExtension->ConnectionId.LowPart,
                                              DeviceExtension->ConnectionId.HighPart);

    NT_ASSERT(NT_SUCCESS(Status));

    WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT(&ObjectAttributes);
    ObjectAttributes.ParentObject = Device;

    Status = WdfIoTargetCreate(Device, &ObjectAttributes, &IoTarget);
    if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)) {
        goto IoErrorEnd;
    }   

    if (ReadOperation != FALSE) {
        DesiredAccess = GENERIC_READ;
    } else {
        DesiredAccess = GENERIC_WRITE;
    }

    WDF_IO_TARGET_OPEN_PARAMS_INIT_OPEN_BY_NAME(&OpenParams, ReadString, DesiredAccess);

    Status = WdfIoTargetOpen(IoTarget, &OpenParams);
    if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)) {
        goto IoErrorEnd;
    }
    ...

In the preceding code example, the Device variable is a WDFDEVICE handle to the framework device object for the peripheral device. The RESOURCE_HUB_CREATE_PATH_FROM_ID function creates a string that contains the name of the GPIO I/O resource. The code example uses this string to open the GPIO I/O resource by name.

After the peripheral device driver has obtained a handle to a GPIO I/O resource, this driver can send I/O control requests to read data from or write data to the GPIO pins. A driver that opens a GPIO I/O resource for reads uses IOCTL_GPIO_READ_PINS I/O control requests to read data from the pins in the resource. A driver that opens a GPIO I/O resource for writes uses IOCTL_GPIO_WRITE_PINS I/O control requests to write data to the pins in the resource. The following code example shows how to perform a GPIO read or write operation.


    WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES RequestAttributes;
    WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES Attributes;
    WDF_REQUEST_SEND_OPTIONS SendOptions;
    WDFREQUEST IoctlRequest;
    WDFIOTARGET IoTarget;
    WDFMEMORY WdfMemory;
    NTSTATUS Status;

    WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT(&RequestAttributes);
    Status = WdfRequestCreate(&RequestAttributes, IoTarget, &IoctlRequest);
    if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)) {
        goto RwErrorExit;
    }

    //
    // Set up a WDF memory object for the IOCTL request.
    //

    WDF_OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES_INIT(&Attributes);
    Attributes.ParentObject = IoctlRequest;
    Status = WdfMemoryCreatePreallocated(&Attributes, Data, Size, &WdfMemory);
    if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)) {
        goto RwErrorExit;
    }

    //
    // Format the request.
    //

    if (ReadOperation != FALSE) {
        Status = WdfIoTargetFormatRequestForIoctl(IoTarget,
                                                  IoctlRequest,
                                                  IOCTL_GPIO_READ_PINS,
                                                  NULL,
                                                  0,
                                                  WdfMemory,
                                                  0);

    } else {
        Status = WdfIoTargetFormatRequestForIoctl(IoTarget,
                                                  IoctlRequest,
                                                  IOCTL_GPIO_WRITE_PINS,
                                                  WdfMemory,
                                                  0,
                                                  WdfMemory,
                                                  0);
    }

    if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)) {
        goto RwErrorExit;
    }

    //
    // Send the request synchronously (with a 60-second time-out).
    //

    WDF_REQUEST_SEND_OPTIONS_INIT(&SendOptions,
                                  WDF_REQUEST_SEND_OPTION_SYNCHRONOUS);
    WDF_REQUEST_SEND_OPTIONS_SET_TIMEOUT(&SendOptions,
                                         WDF_REL_TIMEOUT_IN_SEC(60));

    Status = WdfRequestAllocateTimer(IoctlRequest);
    if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)) {
        goto RwErrorExit;
    }

    if (!WdfRequestSend(IoctlRequest, IoTarget, &SendOptions)) {
        Status = WdfRequestGetStatus(IoctlRequest);
    }

    ...

In the preceding code example, Data is a pointer to a data buffer, Size is the size, in bytes, of this data buffer, and ReadOperation indicates whether the requested operation is a read (TRUE) or a write (FALSE).

For more information

For more information about IOCTL_GPIO_READ_PINS requests, including the mapping of data input pins to the bits in the request output buffer, see IOCTL_GPIO_READ_PINS. For more information about IOCTL_GPIO_WRITE_PINS requests, including the mapping of the bits in the request input buffer to data output pins, see IOCTL_GPIO_WRITE_PINS.

For a sample driver that shows how to write a GPIO peripheral driver that runs in kernel mode, see the SimDevice sample driver in the GPIO Sample Drivers collection at Windows Dev Center - Hardware.

 

 

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