How to Subclass a Combo Box
Collapse the table of content
Expand the table of content

How to Subclass a Combo Box

This topic demonstrates how to subclass combo boxes. The C++ example application creates a toolbar window that contains two combo boxes. By subclassing the edit controls within the combo boxes, the toolbar window intercepts TAB, ENTER, and ESC keys that would otherwise be ignored.

What you need to know

Technologies

Prerequisites

  • C/C++
  • Windows User Interface Programming

Instructions

Process the WM_CREATE Message

The application processes the WM_CREATE message to create two combo box controls as child windows.


//  Create two combo box child windows. 
dwBaseUnits = GetDialogBaseUnits(); 
 
hwndCombo1 = CreateWindow(L"COMBOBOX", L"", 
    CBS_DROPDOWN | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE, 
    (6 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
    (2 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
    (100 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
    (50 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
    hwnd, NULL, NULL, NULL);  
 
hwndCombo2 = CreateWindow(L"COMBOBOX", L"", 
    CBS_DROPDOWN | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE, 
    (112 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
    (2 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
    (100 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
    (50 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
    hwnd, NULL, hInst, NULL); 


The application then subclasses the edit controls (selection fields) in each combo box, because they receive the character input for simple and drop-down combo box. Finally, it calls the ChildWindowFromPoint function to retrieve the handle to each edit control.

To subclass the edit controls, the application calls the SetWindowLong function, replacing the pointer to the class window procedure with a pointer to the application-defined SubClassProc function. The pointer to the original window procedure is saved in the global variable lpfnEditWndProc.

SubClassProc intercepts TAB, ENTER, and ESC keys and notifies the toolbar window by sending application-defined messages (WM_TAB, WM_ESC, and WM_ENTER). SubClassProc uses the CallWindowProc function to pass most messages to the original window procedure, lpfnEditWndProc.


//  Get the edit window handle to each combo box. 
pt.x = 1; 
pt.y = 1; 
hwndEdit1 = ChildWindowFromPoint(hwndCombo1, pt); 
hwndEdit2 = ChildWindowFromPoint(hwndCombo2, pt); 
 
//  Change the window procedure for both edit windows 
//  to the subclass procedure. 
lpfnEditWndProc = (WNDPROC) SetWindowLong(hwndEdit1, 
    GWL_WNDPROC, (DWORD) SubClassProc); 
 
SetWindowLong(hwndEdit2, GWL_WNDPROC, (DWORD) SubClassProc); 


Process the WM_SETFOCUS Message

When the toolbar window receives the input focus, it immediately sets the focus to the first combo box in the toolbar. To do this, the example calls the SetFocus function in response to the WM_SETFOCUS message.


case WM_SETFOCUS: 
    SetFocus(hwndCombo1); 
    break; 


Process Application-Defined Messages

The SubClassProc function sends application-defined messages to the toolbar window when the user presses the TAB, ENTER, or ESC key in a combo box. The WM_TAB message is sent for the TAB key, the WM_ESC message for the ESC key, and the WM_ENTER message for the ENTER key.

The example processes the WM_TAB message by setting the focus to the next combo box in the toolbar. It processes the WM_ESC message by setting the focus to the main application window.


  case WM_TAB: 
      if (GetFocus() == hwndEdit1) 
          SetFocus(hwndCombo2); 
      else 
          SetFocus(hwndCombo1); 
      break; 
 
  case WM_ESC: 
       hwndCombo = GetFocus() == hwndEdit1 ? hwndCombo1 : hwndCombo2; 
 
       // Clear the current selection. 
       SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_SETCURSEL, 
          (WPARAM) (-1), 0); 
 
      //  Set the focus to the main window. 
      SetFocus(hwndMain); 
      break;


In response to the WM_ENTER message, the example ensures that the current selection for the combo box is valid and then sets the focus to the main application window. If the combo box contains no current selection, the example uses the CB_FINDSTRINGEXACT message to search for a list item that matches the contents of the selection field. If there is a match, the example sets the current selection; otherwise, it adds a new list item.


case WM_ENTER: 
    hwndCombo = GetFocus() == hwndEdit1 ? hwndCombo1 : hwndCombo2; 
    SetFocus(hwndMain); 
 
    //  If there is no current selection, set one. 
    if (SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_GETCURSEL, 0, 0) 
            == CB_ERR) 
    { 
        if (SendMessage(hwndCombo, WM_GETTEXT, 
                sizeof(achTemp), (LPARAM) achTemp) == 0) 
            break;      //  Empty selection field 
        dwIndex = SendMessage(hwndCombo, 
            CB_FINDSTRINGEXACT, (WPARAM) (-1), 
            (LPARAM) achTemp); 
 
        //  Add the string, if necessary, and select it. 
        if (dwIndex == CB_ERR) 
            dwIndex = SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_ADDSTRING, 
                0, (LPARAM) achTemp); 
        if (dwIndex != CB_ERR) 
            SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_SETCURSEL, 
                dwIndex, 0); 
    } 
    break; 
       
    // . 
    // .  Process additional messages. 
    // . 
 
default: 
    return DefWindowProc(hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam); 


Complete example

Following are the window procedure for the toolbar and the subclass procedure for the two combo boxes.


#define WM_TAB (WM_USER) 
#define WM_ESC (WM_USER + 1) 
#define WM_ENTER (WM_USER + 2) 

//  Global variables
HWND    hwndMain; 
WNDPROC lpfnEditWndProc; //  Original wndproc for the combo box 

//  Prototypes
LRESULT CALLBACK SubClassProc( HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM );
 
/******************************************************** 
 
    FUNCTION:   ToolbarWindowProc 
 
    PURPOSE:    Window procedure for the toolbar window 
 
*********************************************************/ 
 
LRESULT CALLBACK ToolbarWindowProc(HWND hwnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) 
{ 
    static HWND   hwndEdit1; 
    static HWND   hwndEdit2; 
    static HWND   hwndCombo1; 
    static HWND   hwndCombo2; 
    POINT       pt; 
    DWORD       dwBaseUnits; 
    HWND        hwndCombo; 
    DWORD       dwIndex; 
    char achTemp[256];       //  Temporary buffer 
 
    switch (msg) 
    { 
        case WM_CREATE: 
            //  Create two combo box child windows. 
            dwBaseUnits = GetDialogBaseUnits(); 
 
            hwndCombo1 = CreateWindow(L"COMBOBOX", L"", 
                CBS_DROPDOWN | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE, 
                (6 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
                (2 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
                (100 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
                (50 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
                hwnd, NULL, NULL, NULL);  
 
            hwndCombo2 = CreateWindow(L"COMBOBOX", L"", 
                CBS_DROPDOWN | WS_CHILD | WS_VISIBLE, 
                (112 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
                (2 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
                (100 * LOWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 4, 
                (50 * HIWORD(dwBaseUnits)) / 8, 
                hwnd, NULL, hInst, NULL); 
            
            //  Get the edit window handle to each combo box. 
            pt.x = 1; 
            pt.y = 1; 
            hwndEdit1 = ChildWindowFromPoint(hwndCombo1, pt); 
            hwndEdit2 = ChildWindowFromPoint(hwndCombo2, pt); 
 
            //  Change the window procedure for both edit windows 
            //  to the subclass procedure. 
            lpfnEditWndProc = (WNDPROC) SetWindowLong(hwndEdit1, 
                GWL_WNDPROC, (DWORD) SubClassProc); 
 
            SetWindowLong(hwndEdit2, GWL_WNDPROC, (DWORD) SubClassProc); 

            break; 

        case WM_SETFOCUS: 
            SetFocus(hwndCombo1); 
            break; 

        case WM_TAB: 
            if (GetFocus() == hwndEdit1) 
                SetFocus(hwndCombo2); 
            else 
                SetFocus(hwndCombo1); 
            break; 
 
        case WM_ESC: 
             hwndCombo = GetFocus() == hwndEdit1 ? hwndCombo1 : hwndCombo2; 
 
             // Clear the current selection. 
             SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_SETCURSEL, 
                (WPARAM) (-1), 0); 
 
            //  Set the focus to the main window. 
            SetFocus(hwndMain); 
            break;

        case WM_ENTER: 
            hwndCombo = GetFocus() == hwndEdit1 ? hwndCombo1 : hwndCombo2; 
            SetFocus(hwndMain); 
 
            //  If there is no current selection, set one. 
            if (SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_GETCURSEL, 0, 0) 
                    == CB_ERR) 
            { 
                if (SendMessage(hwndCombo, WM_GETTEXT, 
                        sizeof(achTemp), (LPARAM) achTemp) == 0) 
                    break;      //  Empty selection field 
                dwIndex = SendMessage(hwndCombo, 
                    CB_FINDSTRINGEXACT, (WPARAM) (-1), 
                    (LPARAM) achTemp); 
 
                //  Add the string, if necessary, and select it. 
                if (dwIndex == CB_ERR) 
                    dwIndex = SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_ADDSTRING, 
                        0, (LPARAM) achTemp); 
                if (dwIndex != CB_ERR) 
                    SendMessage(hwndCombo, CB_SETCURSEL, 
                        dwIndex, 0); 
            } 
            break; 
       
            // . 
            // .  Process additional messages. 
            // . 
 
        default: 
            return DefWindowProc(hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam); 
    } 
    return 0; 
} 
 
 
/******************************************************** 
 
    FUNCTION:   SubClassProc 
 
    PURPOSE:    Process TAB and ESCAPE keys, and pass all 
                other messages to the class window 
                procedure. 
 
*********************************************************/ 
LRESULT CALLBACK SubClassProc(HWND hwnd, UINT msg, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam) 
{ 
    switch (msg) 
    { 
        case WM_KEYDOWN: 
            switch (wParam) 
            { 
                case VK_TAB: 
                    SendMessage(hwndMain, WM_TAB, 0, 0); 
                    return 0; 
                case VK_ESCAPE: 
                    SendMessage(hwndMain, WM_ESC, 0, 0); 
                    return 0; 
                case VK_RETURN: 
                    SendMessage(hwndMain, WM_ENTER, 0, 0); 
                    return 0; 
            } 
            break; 
 
        case WM_KEYUP: 
        case WM_CHAR: 
            switch (wParam) 
            { 
                case VK_TAB: 
                case VK_ESCAPE: 
                case VK_RETURN: 
                    return 0; 
            } 
    } 
 
    //  Call the original window procedure for default processing. 
     return CallWindowProc(lpfnEditWndProc, hwnd, msg, wParam, lParam); 
} 


Related topics

About Combo Boxes
ComboBox Control Reference
Using Combo Boxes
ComboBox

 

 

Show:
© 2016 Microsoft