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Using If...Then...Else Statements

This page is specific to the Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) Language Reference for Office 2010.

You can use the If...Then...Else statement to run a specific statement or a block of statements, depending on the value of a condition. If...Then...Else statements can be nested to as many levels as you need. However, for readability, you may want to use a Select Case statement rather than multiple levels of nested If...Then...Else statements.

To run only one statement when a condition is True, use the single-line syntax of the If...Then...Else statement. The following example shows the single-line syntax, omitting the Else keyword:

Sub FixDate() 
 myDate = #2/13/95# 
 If myDate < Now Then myDate = Now 
End Sub 

To run more than one line of code, you must use the multiple-line syntax. This syntax includes the End If statement, as shown in the following example:

Sub AlertUser(value as Long) 
 If value = 0 Then 
 AlertLabel.ForeColor = "Red" 
 AlertLabel.Font.Bold = True 
 AlertLabel.Font.Italic = True 
 End If 
End Sub 

Use an If...Then...Else statement to define two blocks of executable statements: one block runs if the condition is True, the other block runs if the condition is False.

Sub AlertUser(value as Long) 
 If value = 0 Then 
 AlertLabel.ForeColor = vbRed 
 AlertLabel.Font.Bold = True 
 AlertLabel.Font.Italic = True 
 Else 
 AlertLabel.Forecolor = vbBlack 
 AlertLabel.Font.Bold = False 
 AlertLabel.Font.Italic = False 
 End If 
End Sub 

You can add ElseIf statements to an If...Then...Else statement to test a second condition if the first condition is False. For example, the following function procedure computes a bonus based on job classification. The statement following the Else statement runs if the conditions in all of the If and ElseIf statements are False.

Function Bonus(performance, salary) 
 If performance = 1 Then 
 Bonus = salary * 0.1 
 ElseIf performance = 2 Then 
 Bonus = salary * 0.09 
 ElseIf performance = 3 Then 
 Bonus = salary * 0.07 
 Else 
 Bonus = 0 
 End If 
End Function 

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