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Compiler Error C2530

'identifier' : references must be initialized

You must initialize a reference when it was declared, unless it is declared already:

  • With the keyword extern.

  • As a member of a class, structure, or union (and it is initialized in the constructor).

  • As a parameter in a function declaration or definition.

  • As the return type of a function.

The following sample generates C2530:

// C2530.cpp
int main() {
   int i = 0;
   int &j;   // C2530
   int &k = i;   // OK