phoneme

phoneme

Specifies a phonetic pronunciation for the contained text.

<phoneme 
alphabet = "string"
ph = "string"
/>

alphabet

Specifies the phonetic alphabet to use.

darpaThe phonetic string is composed of symbols from the DARPA phonetic alphabet.

ph

Required. Specifies the phonetic string using the selected phonetic alphabet.

The following table lists the DARPA phonetic alphabet. The example column provides a word that uses the symbol in the phoneme symbol column of the corresponding row. The transcription column provides a translation of the example using the DARPA phonetic alphabet. The character and the corresponding phonetic symbol are underlined in the respective example and transcription columns.

Phoneme Symbol

Example

Transcription

aa

Bob

b aa b 1

ae

bat

b ae t 1

ah

but

b ah t 1

ao

bought

b ao t 1

aw

down

d aw n 1

ax

about

ax 0 b aw t 1

ay

bite

b ay t 1

b

bet

b eh t 1

ch

church

ch er ch 1

d

dig

d ih g 1

dh

that

dh ae t 1

dx

butter

b ah 1 dx er 0

eh

bet

b eh t 1

em

Chatham

ch ae 1 dx em 0

en

satin

s ae 1 q en 0

er

bird

b er d 1

ey

bait

b ey t 1

f

fog

f ao g 1

g

got

g aa t 1

hh

hot

hh aa t 1

ih

bit

b ih t 1

iy

beat

b iy t 1

jh

jump

jh ah m p 1

k

cat

k ae t 1

l

lot

l aa t 1

m

mom

m aa m 1

n

nod

n aa d 1

ng

sing

s ih ng 1

ow

boat

b ow t 1

oy

boy

b oy 1

p

pot

p aa t 1

q

button

b ah 1 q en 0

r

rat

r ae t 1

s

sit

s ih t 1

sh

shut

sh ah t 1

t

top

t aa p 1

th

thick

th ih k 1

uh

book

b uh k 1

uw

boot

b uw t 1

v

vat

v ae t 1

w

won

w ah n 1

y

you

y uw 1

z

zoo

z uw 1

zh

measure

m eh 1 zh er 0

0

Unstressed

1

Primary stress

2

Secondary stress

&

Word boundary

pau

Silence (AT&T extension)

The text to speech (TTS) engine incorrectly pronounces some phonemes when they are concatenated with other phonemes. For example, the phoneme "ae" is pronounced like "i" in "sit" in the phonetic transcription of "Chatham" provided above. Tellme Networks is investigating the issue and will update this document when more information is available.

When the following example is executed, the TTS engine uses the DARPA phonetic alphabet to read the examples provided in the table.

<vxml version="2.0" 
  xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vxml"
>
  <form>
    <block>
      <prompt>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b aa b 1">Bob</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ae t 1">bat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ah t 1">but</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ao t 1">bought</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="d aw n 1">down</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="ax 0 b aw t 1">about</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ay t 1">bite</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b eh t 1">bet</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="ch er ch 1">church</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="d ih g 1">dig</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="dh ae t 1">that</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ah 1 dx er 0">butter</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b eh t 1">bet</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="ch ae 1 dx em 0">Chatham</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="s ae 1 q en 0">satin</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b er d 1">bird</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ey t 1">bait</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="f ao g 1">fog</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="g aa t 1">got</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="hh aa t 1">hot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ih t 1">bit</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b iy t 1">beat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="jh ah m p 1">jump</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="k ae t 1">cat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="l aa t 1">lot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="m aa m 1">mom</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="n aa d 1">nod</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="s ih ng 1">sing</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ow t 1">boat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b oy 1">boy</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="p aa t 1">pot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ah 1 q en 0">button</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="r ae t 1">rat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="s ih t 1">sit</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="sh ah t 1">shut</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="t aa p 1">top</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="th ih k 1">thick</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b uh k 1">book</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b uw t 1">boot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="v ae t 1">vat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="w ah n 1">won</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="y uw 1">you</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="z uw 1">zoo</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="m eh 1 zh er 0">measure</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
      </prompt>
    </block>
  </form>
</vxml>

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